Title: Phytoremediation - A Promising Technique in Waste Water Treatment
Author(s): K. Sri Lakshmi1, V. Hema Sailaja2 , *M. Anji Reddy3
1Research Scholar, 2Lecturer, *3Professor,
Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, JNTUH, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
Water being the source of life has become a scarce resource in this millennium. Since the limited resource availability, reuse of the available supply is more suggestible. For the said goal, many technologies prevail addressing the task, among which is the technique Phytoremediation. Loads of waste waters gets generated from industrial, commercial and domestic origins and is discarded. Phytoremediation converts this waste water into usable water with the help of plants. This is a very ecofriendly technique which decontaminate the waste water in a very economical way. This review article thus emphasizes on this technique process in detail with special emphases on recent studies carried out for Industrial wastewater treatment. The main conclusions arrive at focusing to develop better economic models to handle abundant quantities of wastewater with varied characteristics, overall decontamination efficiency when compared with other conventional techniques..
 S. Lakshmana Prabu, T. N. K. Suriyaprakash and J. Ashok Kumar (2011). “Wastewater Treatment Technologies”. A Review, Pharma Times, 43(5), 55-62.
 T. J. McGhee, Water Supply and Sewerage, McGraw-Hill, New York (1991) pp. 260- 287.
 Metcalf and Eddy, Wastewater Engineering, Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, 3rd Ed., New York, McGraw Hill (1991) pp. 35-40.
 Sarria V, Péringer P, Cáceres J, Blanco J, Malato S, Pulgarín C (2004). “Solar degradation of 5-amino-6-methyl-2-benzimidazolone by TiO2 and iron (III) catalyst with H2O2 and O2 as electron acceptors”. Sol Energy; 29:853–60.
 García-Montaño J, Ruiz N, Muñoz I, Doménech X, García-Hortal JA, Torrades F, Peral J(2006a). “Environmental assessment of different photo-Fenton approaches for commercial reactive dye removal”. J Hazard Mater; A138:218–25.
 Shubhangi Soni, Sonal Jain (2014). “A review on phytoremediation of Heavy metals from Soil by using plants to remove pollutants from the environment”. International Journal of Advanced Research Volume 2, Issue 8, 197-203
 Sadowsky MJ (1999). “In Phytoremediation: Past promises and future practices”. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology. Halifax, Canada, (1999) pp.1-7
 Ensley, B. D. (2000). “Rationale for use of phytoremediation”. Phytoremediation of toxic metals: using plants to clean-up the environment. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 3-12.
 Cunningham, S.D. and Berti, W.R. (1993). “Remediation of Contaminated Soils with Green Plants—An Overview”. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 29, 207-212.
 Raskin, I., Kumar, P. N., Dushenkov, S., & Salt, D. E. (1994). “Bioconcentration of heavy metals by plants”. Current Opinion in biotechnology: 5(3), 285-290.
 Kruger, L. E., Todd, A. A. and Joel, C. R. eds. (1997) Phytoremediation of Soil and Water Contaminants Symposium Series Vol. 664, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA
 Meagher, R. B. 2000. “Phytoremediation of toxic elemental and organic pollutants”. Current opinion in plant biology, 3: 153-162.
 Lu, H., Z. Li, S. Fu, A. Méndez, G. Gascó and J. Paz-Ferreiro (2014). "Can biochar and phytoextractors be jointly used for cadmium remediation?" PloS one 9(4): e95218.
 Belz, K.E. (1997) “Phytoremediation” Soil and Groundwater Pollution, Civil Engineering Department,Virginia Tech. CE 4594.
 Cunningham, S.D., Shann, J.R., Crowley, D.E., and Anderson, T.A. (1997). “Phytoremediation of contaminated water and soil”. In: Kruger, E.L., Anderson, T.A. and Coats, J.R. eds. “Phytoremediation of soil and water contaminants”. ACS symposium series, Washington, DC, American Chemical Society, 664, Pp 2 – 19.
 Flathman, P.E., and Lanza, G.R (1998), Phytoremediation: Curr artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment. Wat. Res. 24:689-697.
 Cunningham, S. D., T. A. Anderson, P. Schwat and F. C. Hsu. (1996). “Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants”. Adv. Agronomy, 56: 55 – 114.
 Oh, K., Cao, T., Li, T., & Cheng, H. (2014). “Study on application of phytoremediation technology in management and remediation of contaminated soils”. Journal of Clean Energy Technologies, 2(3), 216-220.
 Kumar, P.B.A., Dushenkov, V., Motto, H. and Raskin, I. (1995) “Phytoextraction: The Use of Plants to Remove Heavy Metals from Soils”. Environmental Science & Technology, 29, 1232-1238.
 Blaylock, M.J. and Huang (2000), J.W. “Phytoextraction of metals”. In: I. Raskin and B.D. Ensleyeds. “Phytoremediation of toxic metals: using plants to clean-up the environment”. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 53-70.
 Brooks, R.R (1998a). “General Introduction. In: R.R. Brooks ed. Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals: their role in phytoremediation, microbiology, archaeology, mineral exploration and phytomining”. New York, CAB International, p. 1-14.
 Rogers KH, Breen, PF, Chick AJ (1991). Nitrogen removal in experimental wetland treatment systems: Evidence for the role of aquatic plants. Res. J. Water Polit. Control Fed; 63:934-941.
 Salt, D. E., M. Blaylock, N. P. B. A. Kumar, V. Duskenkov, D. Eustry, I. Chet, and I Raskin. 1995. “Phytoremediation: a novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants”. Bio – Technology: 13: 468-74.
,  Cunningham, S. D., T. A. Anderson, P. Schwat and F. C. Hsu. 1996. “Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants”. Adv. Agronomy, 56: 55 – 114.
 Rogers KH, Breen, PF, Chick AJ (1991). “Nitrogen removal in experimental wetland treatment systems: Evidence for the role of aquatic plants”. Res. J. Water Polit. Control Fe: 63:934-941.
 Burken JG, Schnoor JL (1997). “Uptake and Metabolism of Atrazine by Poplar Trees”. Environ. Sci. Technol: 31(5):1399 - 1405.
 V.J. Odjegba, I.O. Fasidi, “Phytoremediation of heavy metals by Eichhornia crassipe”. The Environmentalist: 27(3), 2007, pp. 349-355.
 Séka Yapoga*, Yapo B. Ossey, Victor Kouame (2013). “Phytoremediation of Zinc. Cadmium, Copper and Chrome from Industrial Wastewater by Eichhornia crassipes, International journal of conservation sciences: Volume 4, Issue 1, January-March 2013: 81-86
 Mangabeira, P. A. O., Labejof, L., Lamperti, A., de Almeida, A. A. F., Oliveira, A. H., Escaig, F., Severo, M. I. G., da C. Silva, D., Saloes, M., Mielke., M. S., Lucena, E. R., Martinis, M. C., Santana, K. B., Gavrilov, K. L., Galle, P. and LeviSetti, R. (2004). “Accumulation of chromium in root tissues of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Cachoeira river – Brazil.” Applied Surface Science; pp 231- 232, pp 497-501.
 Billore et al. (2001) carried out the treatment of industrial efﬂuent with the help of plants Typha latipholia and Phragmitis karka.
 Gonza´lez, P.S., Capozucca, C., Tigier, H., Milrad, S., Agostini, E (2006). Phytoremediation of phenol from wastewater, by peroxidases of tomato hairy root cultures. Enzyme Microb. Technol: 39, 647–653.
 Sunita, S. (2012). "Effect of toxic heavy metal contaminated soil on an ornamental plant Georgina wild (Dahlia)." Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology.
 Wang, Q., Cui, Y., Dong, Y (2002). “Phytoremediation of Polluted Waters; Potentials and Prospects of Wetland Plants,” Engineering in Life Sciences, 22, 199-208.
 Salido, A. L., Hasty, K. L., Lim, J. M., Butcher, D. J (2003). “Phytoremediation of arsenic and lead in contaminated soil using Chinese brake ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea),” International Journal of Phytoremediation: 5, 89-103.
 Blaylock, M., Salt D., Dushenkov, S., Zakharova, O., Gussman, C., Kapulnik, Y., EnsleyB., Raskin, I (1997)., “Enhanced accumulation of Pb in Indian mustard by soil-applied chelating agents,” Environmental Science and Technology: 31, 860-865.
 Das MP, Bashwant M, Kumar K, Das J (2012). “Control of pharmaceutical effluent parameters through bioremediation”. J Chem Pharm Res; 4(2):1061–1065
 Raj DSS, Anjaneyulu Y (2005). “Evaluation of biokinetic parameters for pharmaceutical wastewaters using aerobic oxidation integrated with chemical treatment. Process”. Biochem: 40(1):165–175
,  Suggu Sri Gowri Reddy, A. J. Solomon Raju and Bezawada Mani Kumar (2015), Phytoremediation of sugar industrial water effluent using various hydrophytes. International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 5 No.6.
 Saha P, Shinde O, Sarkar S (2017). “Phytoremediation of industrial mines wastewater using water hyacinth”. International Journal of Phytoremediation: 19(1):87-96.
 Saha, Priyanka, Angela Banerjee, and Supriya Sarkar (2015). "Phytoremediation potential of Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) on steel wastewater." International journal of phytoremediation 17.6: 589-596.
 Yeboah, Samuel Akpah, Albert Nii Moe Allotey, and Emmanuel Biney (2015). “Purification of industrial wastewater with Vertiver grasses (Vertiveria zizanioides): The case of food and beverages wastewater in Ghana”. Asian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences: vol 2.2.
 Elias S, Mohamed M, Ankur AN, Muda K, Hassan MAHM, Othman MN, Chelliapan S (2014). “Water hyacinth Bioremediation for ceramic industry wastewater treatment application of Rhizofiltration system”. Sains Malaysiana; 43(9):1397–1403.
 Marecik, R., Biegańska-Marecik, R., Cyplik, P., Ławniczak, Ł., & Chrzanowski, Ł. (2013). “Phytoremediation of industrial wastewater containing nitrates, nitroglycerin, and nitroglycol”. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 22(3), 773-780.
 Husnain, Amjad, Syed Shahid Ali, and Rabeea Zafar (2013). "Phytoremediation of heavy metals contamination in industrial waste water by Euphorbia prostrata." Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 5.1: 36-41
 Sukumaran, Dipu (2013). "Phytoremediation of heavy metals from industrial effluent using constructed wetland technology." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 1.5: 92-97.
 Mishra, Swayamprabha, Monalisa Mohanty, Chinmay Pradhan, Hemanta Kumar Patra, Ritarani Das, and Santilata Sahoo (2013). "Physico-chemical assessment of paper mill effluent and its heavy metal remediation using aquatic macrophytes—a case study at JK Paper mill, Rayagada, India." Environmental monitoring and assessment 185, no. 5 (2013): 4347-4359.
 Cortes-Esquivel, Jorge A., Germán Giácoman-Vallejos, Icela D. Barceló-Quintal, Roger Méndez-Novelo, and María C. Ponce-Caballero (2012). "Heavy metals removal from swine wastewater using constructed wetlands with horizontal sub-surface flow." Journal of Environmental Protection 3: 871.
 H.E.Hassan, A.A. Abdel Rahman, E.A. El-Sherbini, T.A.Tawfic, A.R. Abdel Tawab (2012). “Phytoremediation of Industrial Wastewater Polluted with Heavy Metals Using Water Hyacinth Roots.” Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 8(8): 3878-3886.
 Ajayi, Tolu Olufunmilayo, and Atoke Olaide Ogunbayo (2012). "Achieving environmental sustainability in wastewater treatment by phytoremediation with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)." Journal of Sustainable Development 5.7: 80
 Dipu, S., Anju A. Kumar, and V. Salom Gnana Thanga (2011). "Phytoremediation of dairy effluent by constructed wetland technology". The Environmentalist 31.3: 263-278.
 Hegazy, A. K., N. T. Abdel-Ghani, and G. A. El-Chaghaby (2011). "Phytoremediation of industrial wastewater potentiality by Typha domingensis”. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology 8.3: 639-648.
 Mohanty M, Pattnaik MM, Mishra AK, Patra HK (2011). “Chromium bioaccumulation in rice grown in contaminated soil and irrigated mine wastewater--a case study at South Kaliapani chromite mine area, Orissa, India”. Int J Phytoremediation, May-Jun;13(5):397-409.
 Mohanty M, Patra HK (2011). “Attenuation of Chromium toxicity in mine waste water using water hyacinth”. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry. 2011;7(4).
 Rai, Prabhat Kumar. "Technical note: Phytoremediation of Hg and Cd from industrial effluents using an aquatic free floating macrophyte Azolla pinnata." International journal of phytoremediation 10.5 (2008): 430-439.
 Kulkarni, B. V., Ranade, S. V., & Wasif, A. I. (2007). “Phytoremediation of textile process effluent by using water hyacinth—a polishing treatment”. Journal of Industrial Pollution Control, 23(1), 97-101.
 Mahmood Q, Zheng P, Islam E, Hayat Y, Hassan MJ, Jilani G, Jin RC (2005). “Lab scale studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Marts Solms) for biotreatment of textile wastewater”. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences. Apr 1;3(2):83-8. Singhal, V., A. Kumar, and J. P. N. Rai (2003). "Phytoremediation of pulp and paper mill and distillery effluents by channel grass (Vallisneria spiralis)." Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, Vol.62 (4), pp.319-328