Corrugated Galvanised Iron Sheet as an Alternative to Conventional Roofing Materials “A case study from Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhutan”

Main Article Content

Sonam Tobgay Kumbu Dorji Norbu Yangdon


Corrugated galvanized iron (CGI) sheet as an alternative to conventional roofing material was initiated under the integrated conservation development program (ICDP) of Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary in the year 2004. The program was aimed at reducing community pressure on natural resources to enhance conservation of biodiversity and keystone fauna and flora species through protection of wild habitat. It has benefited 628 inhabitants of Merak and Sakteng which were identified as the least developed among 15 Gewogs (Blocks) under Trashigang Dzongkhag (District). Data were collected through semi structured questionnaires to study the impact of the program to policy and natural habitat management. Amongst the two types of conventional roofing materials available in the locality, Shingles (79%) were in extensive use in comparison to Bamboo mat (21%) attributing to its durability. However, people prefer to use CGI sheet (100%) roofing which is economical, durable and effective in comparison to Shingle and Bamboo mat roofing, where incidences of water seepage to the room is frequent and requires replacing after 5.6 and 1.7 years respectively incurring higher maintenance costs. Replacing conventional roofing with CGI sheet has a long-term positive impact to conservation of forest and wild habitat. It is estimated that under ideal conditions approximately 5521 healthy matured Fir trees (>4'1''girth) and 1.68 million Bamboos were saved from felling since the initial supply of CGI sheet. However, effective roofing has led to the construction of the illegal permanent concrete huts in the Tsamdro (pastureland) and changes in the architectural designs of their native houses. The need of proper drainage system was also observed as important to reduce the gully erosion from CGI sheet roof run-off.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tobgay, S., Dorji, K., & Yangdon, N. (2018). Corrugated Galvanised Iron Sheet as an Alternative to Conventional Roofing Materials “A case study from Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhutan”. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 6(01), FE-2018.
Forestry and Environmental



1. Dorjee, K., & Katel, O. N. (2012). Transhumant Practices and its impact on Red Panda Habitat in Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhutan. Sakteng Wild life Sanctuary, Sakteng, Trashigang, eastern Bhutan.Unpublish
2. Dukpa, D., Khandu, Y., Darabant, A., & Cook, E. R. (2012). Growth release of retained fir (Abies densa) trees in the group opening and single tree selection logging. Bhutan Journal of RNR, 8 (1), 113-119..
3. Geyik, P. M. (1986). FAO watershed management field manual- Gully control, FAO Conservation guide 13/2. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations
4. Lotay, Y. (2015). Wind induced Damage to roofs,A comparative study on roofs in Bhutan and Japan. Asian Disaster Reduction Center.
5. Ministry of Agriculture. (2006). Forest and Nature Conservation Rules of Bhutan. Department of Forest, Royal Government of Bhutan.
6. N.S.W Heritage Office. (2004). Corrugated roofing. Endorsed by the Heritage Council of NSW Technical Advisory Group, Australia ISBN 1876415789.
7. Pradhan, S., Gautom, K. S., & Jamal, A. K. (2001). Ecology of the red panda Ailurus fulgens in the Singhalila National Park. Biological Conservation, 98, 11-18.
8. Ramli, N. I., Majid, T. A., Chik, F. A., Muhammad, M. K., & Deraman, S. A. (2014). Assessment of Pull-through Failure of Nail Connection for Rural Roofing System under Wind Load in Malaysia. Journal of Civil Engineering Research, 4(3A):, 135-137.
9. SWS. (2016). Conservation Management Plan (2017-2024), Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary. Department of Forests of Park Services, Royal Governmentof Bhutan; and Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation, Thimphu, Bhutan.
10. The Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan. (2008). Article 5, Section 3
11. Wangchuk, K. (n.d). Habitat status and conservation threats of the Red Panda in Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park. The Rufford Foundation.
12. Wangchuk, S. (2008). Management Plan for Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary. Ministry of Agriculture , Department of Forest. Royal Government of Bhutan.
13. Wangdi, T. (2015, April 29). Illegal occupancy in Merak. , p. 6.
14. World Wildlife Fund. (2015). Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary. .
15. World Wildlife Fund&Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary(2011). Participatory Zoning for Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary;Balancing Conservation and Development Goals. Department of Forest and Park Services , World Wildlife Fund Bhutan and Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary. Ministry of Agriculture and Forest.
16. Yonzon, P. B., & Hunter, M. L. (1991b). Conservation of the red panda Ailurus fulgens . Biological Conservation , 75, 1-11.