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Title : The Production of Key Chain Kaugaci (Keychain Cardboard) As A Development Effort Of Psychomotor Skills In Higher Education

Article Date Published : 1 March 2018 | Page No.: EL-2018-97-102 | Google Scholar

Abstract

Creativity is one of indicators in assessing learners’ competence and personality. Innovation skill and capability are expected to be developed continuously by learners in their learning environment. KAUGACI production was a keychain product by utilizing used goods in the form of cardboard, and it was developed by students of history education of Jember University. This research aims to assess the effectiveness of products in improving students’ psychomotor skills in the university level. 100 respondents with demographic profiles based on gender and entrepreneurial experience were taken as the research participants. The findings showed that KAUGACI products had high effectiveness and productivity that gave impact to the students’ skills development.

Introduction

The development of Asean Economic Community (MEA) encourages countries in the region to compete in developing all aspects, especially the economy. Indonesia still ranks in the middle-low position in term of economic development compared with other ASEAN countries. Samuelson and Nordhaus ( 2001 ) stated that labor input consisted of labor quality and skill which are the most important element in a country's economic growth.

Skill must be owned by each individual in order to improve the quality of human resources. The education sector is an appropriate medium in developing individual potential through various learning designs. It should be realized that the learner’ skills are still very low as the explanation of the findings conducted by Rahayu et al. Therefore, It indicated that learners’ psychomotor level is considered too low ( Rahayu et al, 2011 ). One of ways to improve students' psychomotor is by training and completing tasks that can stimulate their psychomotor level. Thus, it will affect the productivity outcome of the human resources itself.

The low soft skills of learners in Indonesia also seem to be one of the issues that need to get special attention. Tarmidzi ( 2010 ) explained that soft skill ability was given 90% at Harvard School of Business, while the implementation of soft skill in Indonesia was only 20%. Education in Indonesia still tends to be oriented towards academic achievement only. However, the success that contributes to success in the work world consists of 10% financial factor, 20% skill factor, 30% networking factor, and 40% soft skill factor. Hence, it can be concluded that the ability of Soft skills is needed in improving the ability and supporting economic skills. Soft skills contribute quite high up to 40% in the success of the work world. The development of soft skills is expected to support the productivity of a business. Djumril and Latief ( 2014 ) showed that soft skills became one of the variables affecting the productivity of individual work and career.

Skill development in the university level can be done through the provision of tasks that are designed by bringing up skill and innovation aspects in the process. Based on the field facts and the analysis of previous studies, the researchers produced an item in the form of KAUGACI key chains with cardboard base material. Through the development of that product, it was expected to improve students' psychomotor. This research aims to review the effectiveness of product development in creating learners’ psychomotor skills in university level environments.

Literature Review

Psychomotor Skills

Psychomotor skills have many levels. Based on the opinion of Bloom and Krath Wohl (in Hamzah, 2006), Psychomotor has 5 levels:

  1. Imitation ( Imitating a movement )

  2. The imitation skill is shaped by one's observation to imitate an observed object, although it is not comprehensively known

  3. Use ( Using a concept to do a movement )

  4. The manipulating skill is applying and choosing an activity appropriately.

  5. Accuracy (doing some movement correctly)

  6. Accuracy like natural means someone do something exactly and naturally, without a pretense in doing the activity.

  7. Combination (doing some movements correctly)

  8. Combination is a more complex and interpretative skill which gives opinion to other people’s skill.

  9. Naturalization (doing a movement naturally)

Based on Anita Harrow's opinion, the domain taxonomy of psychomotor has six stages:

  1. Reflex Movement. This stage is an unconscious response owned from birth. This stage covers Segmental Reflexes, Inter-segmental Reflexes, and Supra-segmental Reflexes. These three characteristics are associated with movements that are coordinated by brain and parts of the spinal cord.

  2. Basic Fundamental Movement. This stage is movements leading to complex skills which are as follows:

Perceptual Abilities are perception abilities. This stage is the combination of cognitive and movement abilities. The movements in this stage are:

Physical Abilities. Stages needed to develop high-level skills movements are:

Skilled Movements aress movements that require learning. The involved stages are as follows:

  1. Non-discursive Communication is the stage of having ability to communicate using the movement such as facial expression (mimic), posture, and so forth. The involved stages are as follows:

  2. a) Expressive movements are movements used in everyday life such as attitude and gestures, body language, facial expression; b) Interpretive movements are movements as a part of an art form including aesthetic movement, creative movement (improvisation) and so on.

Based on the six stages of psychomotor domain described by Anita Harrow (in Haryanto.2014) above, it will be grouped into three then broadly grouped into three:

  1. Muscular or Motor Skills

  2. Manipulaton of Materials or Object

  3. Neuromuscular Coordination

Hasibullah ( 2006 ) mentioned that soft skill was a personal and interpersonal behavior that developed and maximized someone's performance. Soft skills are self-developed skills that are not technical such as financial management skills, quality of life skills, critical thinking skills, and so forth. According to Djumiril ( 2014 ), the expert f procative speaker, explained that understanding of soft skills would be easier if we understood the antonym that was hard skills itself. Soft skills are superficial abilities that have indirect results and have a close relationship with someone's personal and interpersonal skills. Essentially, soft skills are competencies related to character, interpersonal skills, attitudes and values of someone's life.

illah ( 2007 ) in her book entitled “The Development of Soft skills in University, explained about the soft skills components. They were:

  1. Intra-personal skills (ability in dealing with others). Examples of intra-personal skills are transforming character, transforming beliefs, change management, stress management, time management, creative thinking processes, goal setting and life purpose, ( 8 ) acelerated learning techniques and so on.

  2. Inter-personal skills are self-regulating skills. Components in inter-personal skills are ( 1 ) self-communication skill, ( 2 ) relationship building , ( 3 ) motivation skills, ( 4 ) leadership skills, ( 5 ) self-marketing skills, ( 6 ) negotiation, ( 7 ) presentation skills, ( 8 ) public speaking skills and so on.

  3. Motivation skills

Hasibuan ( 2005 ) explained that the motivation came from another word “move” which means encouragement or move. Motivation focuses on how to direct the power and potential of subordinates in order to cooperate productively in achieving and realizing the determined goals. Motivation is a factor encouraging a person to perform certain activities; so that, motivation is often defined as a factor driving a person's behavior ( Sutrisno, 2011 ).

Soft skill is one of the important factors in improving human productivity. A person is required to master technical competencies such as the skill of applying the concepts that have been studied and required to have strong character, solid attitude and other intra and interpersonal skills.

KAUGACI Production

The following pictures will explain the projection of making KAUGACI products with the steps as below.

  1. 1. Prepare the tools and the need to make KAUGACI.

Figure 1 Picture 1. The Used Cardboard as basic material of KAUGACI

Figure 1 Colored Cardboards

Figure 1 Kaugaci Product

Research Methods

This research was a review research that aims to assess the effectiveness of product development as learners’ psychomotor development effort in university level. This research involved 1 00 samples taken by Simple Random Sampling Technique. The sample used in this research was students of history education who have been taking a degree program at Jember University. Respondents’ demographics included gender and business experience. Gender was divided into male and female sex, while business experience was divided into two parts: ( 1 ) have had business experience and ( 2 ) have no experience at all.

This research used a questionnaire instrument which functioned as a measuring tool to obtain results in the form of data and investigation information. The questionnaire had three parts: respondent demographics, product quality, and consumers’ open response which was designed to get information about weaknesses and criticisms of product development in order to get a superior product.

Findings And Discussion

The following tables will be elaborated the results based on the analysis of the obtained questionnaire data. More information about this research sample can be seen in table 1 below.

No Sample Frequency Percent
1 Sex 47,0
53,0
2 Work Experience 42 42,0
58 58,0

Respondents Profile

The respondents sample table showed that the number of male respondents has had a lower quantity and frequency compared with female respondents. All respondents were students of university level. Work experience also became one of the demographics of respondents related to having business experience in the form of goods or services. Data of respondents indicated that 58% of students had no experience in entrepreneurship. It showed that students still had a low awareness in developing their psychomotor in the field of economy.

It seems necessary to have special action to overcome the low skill of learners. The product development that has high creativity is expected to be a way to improve the learners’ skills. Product development in this research was done through the utilization of used goods in the form of used cardboard to be formed as key chains. The following will explain the productivity assessment of product development by involving 100 respondents of students in University level. Obtaining information on product effectiveness can be seen the table below.

Table 2. Interpretation Result of Product Effectiveness

Product description N Mean Deviation Standard Interpretation
Shape Variation 100 1,15 0,35 Agree
Product uniqueness 100 1,20 0,40 Agree
Color selection 100 1,19 0,39 Agree
Neatness of product design 100 1,21 0,40 Agree
Material durability 100 1,10 0.30 Agree
Easiness of obtaining materials 100 1,18 1,02 Agree
Easiness of processing materials 100 1,07 0,25 Agree
Flexibility of materials 100 1,16 0,36 Agree
Affordability of price 100 1,09 0,28 Agree
Consumption value 100 1,08 0,27 Agree
Product identity 100 1,05 0,21 Agree
Affordability of promotion 100 1,06 0,23 Agree

21 These data indicated that KAUGACI's dominant product had a neat design The lowest mean was shown on the item regarding the product identity It was evidenced by the mean number of KAUGACI product that was 105 The product identity in this case was the identities of the institution and the student institution Based on the identification results of product effectiveness, the developers made improvements to the product based on consumers’ criticism and demand Consumers could request their own logos, pictures, and photos to serve as KAUGACI's key chain profile

Based on the results of data analysis, it showed that the neat design on KAUGACI became the advantage of this product, while the unique design became the characteristic of KAUGACI; so that, they became the main attraction for this product. In addition, KAUGACI also had advantage in color contrast selection because product developers used bright coloring material on used cardboard material. It could be the main attraction to consumers.

The utilization of used materials in the form of cardboard gave the flexibility effect in material acquisition that was with a mean of 1.18. Materials that developers used to make KAUGACI product was very easy to get. The material was made from waste cardboard that developers could get easily from collectors of used goods. In addition, resin and catalyst materials were also easy to obtain and had a harmless chemical content. Based on the above data, it could be concluded that the overall variable KAUGACI product effectiveness had a high effectiveness. Improvements and product revisions were still needed to create superior products and to have high economic value.

Conclusion

The low skill of students in the University level is one of the obstacles in the development of human resource quality. Psychomotor skills of learners in this case include interpersonal, intrapersonal and motivational skills. KAUGACI product development has become one of the means in developing psychomotor skill of learners. The learners’ ability and soft skills became one of the supporters that have an important role in improving the learners’ competency index, beside the academic factors ( Puji et al., 2018 ). Improvement and revision of KAUGACI products are required by considering criticism and suggestion from various parties in general and consumers in particular; so that, KAUGACI products can have an economic and educative impact.

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Article Details

Issue: Vol 6 No 03 (2018)
Page No.: EL-2018-97-102
Section: Education And Language
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v6i3.el01


 How to Cite
Puji, R. P., Tholib, A., Kuswanto, B., Firmansyah, M., & Syamsul, A. (2018). The Production of Key Chain Kaugaci (Keychain Cardboard) As A Development Effort Of Psychomotor Skills In Higher Education. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 6(03), EL-2018. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v6i3.el01

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