Education And Language

The Effect of Compensation, Empowerment, Competency and Job Satisfaction toward Performance of Lecture in Wiralodra Universiti of Indramayu

Sumardi Hr., Prof. Dr.Wibowo,
Article Date Published : 18 May 2018 | Page No.: EL-2018-305-316 | Google Scholar

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Abstract

The performance of UNWIR lecturers has not been fully in line with the expectations. Achievement of lecturer performance at UNWIR is quite good category. This study aims to determine the effects resulting from compensation, empowerment, competence on job satisfaction and compensation, empowerment, competence and job satisfaction on the performance of UNWIR lecturers. The method used in this study is quantitative associative that 104 respondents of UNWIR lecturers are assigned. The data was collected by using performance appraisal instrument by chairman of UNWIR and lecturer response instrument relating to the compensation, empowerment, competence and job satisfaction of UNWIR lecturer. Data processing were analyzed using path analysis by LISREL 9.30 software. The result showed that performance appraisal of lecturers of UNWIR by chairman of UNWIR is quite less / low category, response of lecturer on compensation received is sufficient, the empowerment done by UNWIR to the lecturer is enough and the competency assessment of each lecturer are respectively in the good category, the perceived job satisfaction Lecturers are in the category of satisfaction and overall there is a significant relationship between compensation, empowerment and competence on job satisfaction and there is a relationship between compensation, empowerment, competence and job satisfaction on performance..

1. Introduction

Wiralodra University of Indramayu (UNWIR) is one of few universities in Indramayu, there are eight faculty of academic degree that consists of thirteen courses and one post graduated faculty.[1] thirty years had passed by UNWIR, since established in 1985, it is not a short time. But although it has been such a long time, UNWIR have not showed an amazing development. This is caused by a variety of factors as a barrier to the development of UNWIR, one of which is the performance of a lecturer. Lecturer is a professional educator and scientist with the main task of transforming, developing and disseminating science technology and arts through education, research and community service. The lecturer holds position as professionals at the level of higher education appointed in accordance of legislation. The role of a lecturer as professionals serves to enhance the dignity and the role of the lecturer as agents of learning, developing science technology and arts as well as serving the community by improving the quality of national education. Performance of UNWIR lecturers indicated with lecturers doing less research and dedication to society, the lecturers are busy with jobs that are not related to their main roles and functions as well as the generally apathetic behaviour. This situation will later can badly affect the college survival. So that, it needs to be analyzed for the factors cause the onset of these problems. The above phenomena are a form of low performance behavior of the lecturers in UNWIR. In fact the quality of UNWIR is largely determined by the performance of the lecturers. Therefore the university management and foundation are required to pay more attention and understand everything that is desired by lecturers. With references issue that has been explained above, this become main reason of the importance of researching the low performance of UNWIR lecturers performance more thouroughly and comprehensive.

2. Literature Review

2.1. The Employees Performance

The performance is basically what the employees do and did not do. The performance of employees is affecting the amount of contribution they contribute to the organization, among others, including: quantity of output, quality of output, time period output, presence at work and their cooperation.[2] These qualities confirm that there are five aspects that need to be performed by employees in performing main tasks and functions which consist of: 1) Employees contribute to the organization in the form of quantity output. 2) Employees contribute to the organization in the form of quality output. 3) Employees contribute to the organization in the form of time used. 4) Presence at the places of work. 5) Cooperative attitude between fellow employees and obedient toward leaders. According to Pace and Faule says that:

Performance a functional task related to the ability of somebody to finish their work, especially in the completion of the technical aspects of the work, handlng interpersonal tasks with other members, including addressing conflict, time management, empowering others, work in a group and work independently.[2] They stated that performance of employees has seven aspects to comprise: 1) the completion of tasks in the technical aspects. 2) Completing the work with fellow employees. 3) Resolving conflicts that occur between fellow employees. 4) Get the job done effectively. 5) Able to finish the job by empowering others. 6) Able to finish the work in a group. 7) Able to finish the work independently.

According to Colquitt, et al., stating Formal performance is described as the value of the set of employee behaviors that support, both positively and negatively in order to achieve organizational goals.[3]

According to George and Jones, argued that Performance is the result of an assessment of a person's behavior, which is related to the determination of how well a person has done his job or done his job.[4]

Based on these definitions, employee performance is the level of achievement or the execution of the duties of an employee in performancing their duties and responsibilities as functional workers.[4] This means that Performance is the result of a specific job function or activity for a period of time. From that understanding, there are three aspects that need to be understood by any leader of an organization, namely: 1) the clarity of tasks that are the responsibility of employees .2) the clarity of the expected results by the organization and 3) time required to finish the job.

Based on the opinions of experts above, it can be synthesized that employee performance is the achievement of functional duties of employees during a certain period of time both in qualitative as well as quantitative, in accordance of their authority and responsibility, as motives and opportunities in order to realize the goals, objectives, vision and mission of the organization legally, does not violate the law and in accordance with the moral or ethical values. The indicators are: objectives, standards, feedback, means, motive, opportunity. As for performance indicators according to Wibowo is[5]: Goals; Standard; Feedback; The Tools or Means; Competence; Motives and Opportunities.

2.2 Compensation

Someone who working is contributing time, mind, and energy to the organization and as his achievements, the organization must provide a proper compensation or rewards for meeting the needs of self and family life of their employees. Compensation played an important role because in general the employees want the magnitude of the compensation given by the company in proportion to the workload, as it also expects to guarantees welfare for himself and his family while they were still active work and after they reach retirement. With a balanced compensation, employees ' welfare will be fulfilled and expected employee will get job satisfaction so that the employee's performance will be high. With regard to that Ivancevich stated that: "Compensation is the Human Resources Management function that deals with every type of reward individuals receive in exchange for performing organization tasks".[6] It means compensation in return from work that has been done by employees given by the company as form of recognition of the work done by employees.

It is also said by Milkovich that "Compensation is any income in the form of money, goods directly or indirectly received by employees in return for services rendered to the company".[7] This statement have meaning that income in the form of money that employee received in return for services rendered on the company and all the income in the form of direct and indirect goods as rewards that employees received the services given to the employee.

Based on the opinions of experts above, it can be synthesized that compensation is the cons achievement from all forms of reward in the form of money, goods directly and indirectly promised will be received by an employee as retribution over perceived task in order to achieve goals, with indicators; salary, wages, incentives, direct goods and allowances. The indicators of compensation:

Direct income consists of: base salary (wages and salaries) and the income is not fixed (bonus, incentives, perks and daham option).[8]

2.3. Empowerment

Empowerment of employees starting from the question "what can be achieved" by giving discretion to the employees to do planning and decision making over the work that became their responsibility. Employee empowerment is focused to the lowest-level employees in any organization. If in traditional organizations, employees are not accounted for in the division of power (power distribution), with employee empowerment, power thus dug out from inside of the employees.

According to Robbin as the placement of workers are responsible for what they do.[9] While according to Greenberg and Baron states that: Empowerment is continuous between the state of workers who did not have the power to consider how to work in a situation where workers have control fully over what they do and how to do it.[10] The above opinions show; (a) planning of the work, (b) consider working the job, (c) the procedures for completing the work and (d) have any control over their own work.

According to Smith, empowerment means giving them a chance to show that they can give you a good idea and manifesting their skills and makes it into a reality.[11] The opinions above have meaning; provides an opportunity to employees to pour their thoughts, provides an opportunity to employees to realize their idea into reality and provide an opportunity to employees to use the skills they have.

Empowerment is a process that distinguishes a greater autonomy to workers through exchanging relevant information and provision of observations over the factors that affect the profession.[12] Opinion above have meanings which distinguishes the rights, authority, duties and responsibilities of each worker by means of exchanging information and factors that affect their working profession.

Empowerment in order to encourage and increase individuals to undertake personal responsibility over their efforts improves the way they carry out their jobs and contributed on the achievement of the goals of the organization.[13] Opinion above has meaning an attempt to motivate the workers so that it is able to carry responsibilities, improve worker, responsibility, effort repair workers in carry out its work so that it is able to achieve the goal the organization.

Based on the opinions of experts above can be synthesized that employee empowerment is the giving of an opportunity to employees in an effort to improve their working ethos cooperatively, improving employees’ abilities and skills in order to improve their abilitiy to solve problems faced by giving trust to foster a sense of responsibility, with the indicator-indicator: each employee is appreciated for the thought-provoking contributions, employees are encouraged to provide thought-provoking contributions, employees have the awareness to complete his work, employees have a cooperative work culture, employees are responsible for his work.

As for the empowerment indicators according to \ Clutterbuck[13]:

  1. Each employee is valued to give private donations

  2. Employees are encouraged to give private donations

  3. Individual – the individual is always aware not only of what they're trying to achieve, but also why they try once achieving it and how it is aligned with corporate objectives.

  4. The culture maybe well cooperative and aware of the goal-oriented attitude, not by blamed attitude.

  5. Individuals have real willingness to assume personal responsibility over their own success, the success of the team in which they work and the Organization as a whole.

2.4. Competences

Competences derive from the word meaning skills, capabilities and authorities. Etymologically, competence is defined as the dimension of behavior skill or excellence leader or someone on staff that has the skill.[14] Opinion above means that an employee must have a proficiency of employees in carrying out the task, the ability of employees to complete tasks, and skills of employees in completing his responsibilities.

Spencer and Spencer and Mitrani competency is defined as "an underlying characteristic's of an individual which is causally related to criterion-referenced or superior and effective performance in a job or situation ".[15] Underlying competencies means a part of of a person personality who is quite deep and relatively settled can predict behavior in a variety of situations and tasks. Casually related means that competence can cause or predict a person's behavior or performance.

Competence is the ability to execute or do a job or task that is based upon skills and knowledge as well as supported by the attitude of work required by the job. Thus the competency demonstrated skill or knowledge is characterized by prefosionalisme in a particular field as something that is paramount, as the pre-eminent that field.[5] Opinion above means (1) the ability to carry out work that is grounded with a skill that is supported by the attitude of work to suit the job and (2) the ability to carry out work which is based on with the knowledge that is supported by the attitude of work to suit the job.

Competence is a fundamental characteristic of someone who lets them provide superior performance in a job, role or a particular situation. Skills are the things that people can do well; knowledge is a person knownledge about a topic. Social role is the demonstrated image of a person in advance of the public. Social role representing what people deem is important. Social roles reflect that person's values.[14]

The aspects contained in the concept of competency as follows:

  1. Knowledge. Namely, in the field of cognitive awareness.

  2. Comprehension, i.e. the depth of the cognitive and affective, owned by individuals.

  3. Skill is something that is owned by the individual to perform the task or the job that charged him.

  4. Values which is a standard of behavior that had been believed to be psychologically and have fused in a person.

  5. Attitude, feeling (happy, likes dislikes) or a reaction to a stimulus which is dating from the outside.

  6. Interest, i.e. the tendency of a person to perform an act.[14]

Based on the experts’ opinions, it can be synthesized that the employee competency are characteristic of the knowledge, skills, competences and skills. Employee in performing the duties and responsibilities effectively characterized by quality improvement professional in an occupation, with indicators: characteristics of knowledge belonging to employees, employee skill characteristics, carry out tasks effectively, responsibility responsibility, quality improvement professional.

Competence indicator[5]:

  1. The characteristics of individual knowledge

  2. Characteristics of individual skills

  3. Carry out tasks effectively

  4. Individuals are responsible for effectively

  5. Improvement of the quality of professional work

2.5. Job Satisfaction

Every individual who works surely expect satisfaction from their workplace. Satisfaction is a relative and subjective, meaning that each individual has a measure of satisfaction. Complacency is a condition that is not fixed, but always evolves according to the needs a boost from within and from outside of the respective individuals. According to Robibins in Wibowo said that job satisfaction as a general is an attitude towards the work of someone, that shows the difference between the numbers of awards received workers and the amount they believe should they receive.[5] Opinion above has a meaning that job satisfaction is the attitude of a person towards his distinction in the real results with haarapan it wants.

The same views were expressed by Gibson, et.al, describe that job satisfaction is the attitude which belonged to workers about their jobs.[16] It is as a result of their perception of the work.

Whereas Newstrom defines that: "Job satisfaction is a collection of pleasant or unpleasant feelings and emotions with which employees view their work. Job satisfaction is the affective attitude of a feeling about joy or dislike relative to something".[17] Job satisfaction is an affective attitude feelings about joy or dislike relative to something. Job satisfaction is an indicator of individual behavior in the freedom of Association, in addition to other indicators such as stress, motivation, decision making processes, and capabilities.

According to Colcuitt, Lepin, and Wesson expressed Job satisfaction is a pleasant emotional state of the job appraisal.[3] That means, job satisfaction is a pleasant emotional state to the assessment of their work. In this case, one person's assessment toward one job or work experience, or in other words how our feelings about the job and what he thought about the job, employees who have high work have the feeling that positive when thinking about their job or being part of a group in doing its job, while employees who work low satisfaction have negative feelings when thinking about the job.

Based on the experts opinions above, it can be synthesized that job satisfaction is a set of feelings (emotions) that owned the worker as a result of the evaluation and the context it works against job characteristics work surroundings shows the difference of the number of awards received by the number they are supposed to receive, with indicators: feeling the delightful employees, quality supervision, relationship with colleagues, opportunities of promotion.

Indicators of job satisfaction are[3]:

  1. The work itsef, the work itself which includes responsibility, interest (inters) and growth (growth).

  2. Quality of supervision, which includes technical bentuan (technical help) and social support (social support).

  3. Relationship with co-worker, which includes social harmony (social harmony) and respect (respect).

  4. Promotion opportunities, including the opportunity to progress further (chances for futher advancement).

  5. Pay, in the form of adequacy of mercenaries (adequacy of pay) and a feeling of Justice toward those other (perceived equity vis-ả-vis other).

2.6. Previous Research

  1. Research conducted by Lucia Feraro-Banta and Shirin Al Shaik in Bahrain with the auditing firm respondents 100 employees. This research using qualitative and quantitative methods, the results of this research are the compensation and benefits received by employees of the company audit in Bahrain, compensation and benefits is effectively influencing the performance of employees with average 0.1) The status of compensation and benefits in the Audit Firms are rated good. 2) Compensation and benefits is an effective tool in measuring the performance of employees in the Audit Firms. 3) There is considerable relationship between the status and the level of effectiveness of compensation and benefits on the performance of employees in Audit firms."[18] In the above variable compensation research merges with benefit and analasis of the correlation is done indirectly from variable compensation and performance benefits, but the correlation analysis was conducted of each indicator of compensation and benefits consisting of remunisasi, allowances, promotions and incentives. Whereas, in the study of variable compensation independently and correlation analysis was performed is not perindikator. The above equation of of research with the research is equally analyzing the effect of compensation on performance. 41 entered in the classification currently, a summary of this research is: '

  2. The study carried out by Rajalingam Yasothai et.al., across from the Prai, Penang by the number of respondents to 200 employees. This research using quantitative methods, the results of this research and stating that: "employee empowerment does influence their performance and such influence can be mediated with appraisal in an organization. Therefore, it is very important for each and every organization to enhance their empowerment activity and a good performance appraisal to increase the level of employee performance."[19] This research proves that empowerment effect on the performance of the employee, the employee's performance again more assertive can be improved by increasing the empowerment of employees. Each employee would certainly want to be recognized and valued begiu anyway in terms of thinking and contribute their opinions for the development and advancement of the institution. If this happens then the awareness and responsibility of employees in carrying out the duties will be increased so that little lot will affect the performance of the employees. Knowledge and skills of employees will be reflected in the implementation of the duties and responsibilities of improvements, if this is the case by itself would increase the employee's professional qualities so it will affect the performance of the employees. Research conducted by Megan Lotunani et.al, in the reign of Kendari, South East Sulawesi with number of pupolasi 152 employees, States that: "The result of the research reveals that to improve civil servants performance and satisfaction, they must have good competence and commitment. And the civil servants must be given reward to improve their quality and professionalism."[20] The Penilitian proves that competence to performance even with the unequivocal mention for improving performance of employees should start with how to develop and improve the competence of employees.

  3. The results of research conducted by Panagiotis Trivellas, et. al., aims to find out the influence of job satisfaction through public employees on performance competence with using a sample of 821] the difference in the above research with the research that will be done is research in atah focus more on the relationship between job satisfaction and performance through a general competence, whereas in penelltian, which will be the main focus of the research is the relationships between the variables kepusan work on performance directly without going through the intervening variables. The equation above research with the research that will be done is alike measuring the relationship of job satisfaction toward performance. 4 employees. This research proved that the existence of a relationship between varabel job satisfaction with employee performance with value r = 0400 included in the classification. The study also shows that the relationship of job satisfaction through the general competence of the employees have an influence on performance seesar 0428 included in the classification.[

  4. Research conducted by Ja Jamilu B. Salisu aims to analyze the effect compensation towards job satisfaction in the sector of the construction industry of Nigeria. The sample is selected by berstrata 265 people out of 800 people is comprised of human resources with a wide range of skills such as personnel administration, operators, engineers and supervisors. Analysis tool uses the SEM it is dikarnakan its analysis based on indicators of compensation, namely the salary, allowances, gratuities and pesiun. Based on the results of the above research, analysis of the obtained results of the direct influence of salary against the job satisfaction of 0"This research has provided a very significant contribution to the literature on relationship between compensation and public sector construction workers ' job satisfaction in Jigawa State state, Nigeria.[22] The difference with research conducted by Salisu b. Jamilu research this is a sample taken from a different profession, employees of the analytical tools used are indicators of compensation against the variable job satisfaction. Whereas, in this study the samples used are taken from the employee, i.e. establishing a lecturer UNWIR, direct influence of variable compensation as a whole towards job satisfaction, analysis of the data used in this research is to use the path analysis software with the help of LISREL 9.30 Student. The equation above research with the research that will be done is the same – same analyze relationships of compensation towards job satisfaction.4 47 with classification are direct benefits, the influence on performance of 0757 with strong classification, direct influence gratuities on performance of 0240 with low's direct influence on performance of retirement 0450 with moderate classification.

  5. Research conducted by Karthik namasivayam, et. al., which aims to examine the role of psychological empowerment and job satisfaction in the relationship between empowerment and customer satisfaction and organizational commitment. In this research that became the sample of the research were 238 employees from 40 restaurants. The method used is the peneitian method of the kuantitati research with SEM data analysis technique. The results of SEM showed that the presence of the influence of psychological empowerment employee against employee job satisfaction with value path analysis of 0.53. The difference between the above research with the research that will be implemented is the aspect of the site, the number of population, sample and background profession respondents research, the methods used in this research is quantitative with the associative method LISREL 9.30 Student software help to analyze the data. Parallels between the above researches with the research that will be done are the same – the same time analyzes the effect of empowerment against the job satisfaction of employees.

  6. Research conducted by Andi Syahrum, Ida Aju Brahmasari and Riyadi Nugroho aims to analyse the influence of competency, organizational culture and organizational climate against organizational commitment, job satisfaction and performance of employees in the scope of Makassar City Government. The population used in this research is government employees who occupied the town of Makassar Echelon 2.3 and 4 with a total of 453 employees Together and the number of samples used is 298 employees Together. This research uses the SEM as analytical techniques data used. The results of this research are to have a positive influence and competence significantly to organizational commitment, job satisfaction and employee performance to the value path analysis of 0313. The difference in the above research with the research that will be done is place of population, sample, methods and techniques of data analysis used. Parallels between this research with the research that will be done is equally analyse the influence of competencies against job satisfaction.

3. Materials and Methodology

3.1 Research Models and Design

The research method used was assosiatif quantitative methods. Because the free variables with variable between bound there are variable between (intervening), then the data analysis techniques using path analysis (Path Analysis). This research is using statistical calculation by MS-EXCEL and LISREL 9.23]30 STUDENT Software.[

This research involves five variables, four variables can act as a free variable, and one variable as variable. The variable compensation (X1), lecturer and empowerment (X2), competence of the lecturers (Xexogenous variable; while a lecturer job satisfaction variables (X4) can act as exogenous variable or endogenus depends on the structure of the path or anything to do. Variable performance lecturer (Y) Act as endogenus variable. The proposed relationship structure model included into the recursive model completely, because endogenous variables influenced by variables earlier in the causal sequence. Exogenous variables are the variables that can only act as free variables; While the variable is a variable that can be endogenus bertidak as variables bound at least, relies on a free variable. Constellation research path analysis (path) is described as the following Figure 3.1 3) is an

Figure 3.1:

3.2. Population

The population that set is the whole University Wiralodra lecturers with the number of 141 people scattered in 8 faculties and one Post Graduate

3.3 Sampling Technique

Define samples, with following the Harken from Slovin.[24] According to him, the minimum sample size is:

n = ? 1 + ? . e 2

Description:

n = sample size

N = population size

  1. = constant1 = constant

e = critical values (limits of accuracy).

  1. In this study, the critical value of 0.05, just taken with significant level set. Therefore, the minimal sample used a minimum of:In this study, the critical value of 0.05, just taken with significant level set. Therefore, the minimal sample used a minimum of:

This research has two types of variables, namely: Bound variable (performance of UNWIR lecturers); Intervening variables (job satisfaction of UNWIR Lecturers) and variables (Compensation, Lecturers empowerment and competence of UNWIR lecturers)

Variable Indicator Scale reference
Compensation (X1) Likert Robert L. mathis dan John H. Jacson( 2006 )
Lecturers empowerment (X2) Likert David Clutterbuck ( 2010 )
Lecturers Compensation (X3) Test and micro teaching Wibowo ( 2015 )
Lecturers job satisfaction (X4) Likert Colquitt,Jason A.,Jeffery A.LePine and Michael J.Wesson ( 2011 )
Kinerja dosen (Y) Score 1-5 Wibowo ( 2015 )

5 Technical Analysis

Data analysis on this research is using LISREL 9.30 Student software to find the coefficient analysis path. In addition to seeking the path coefficients, this research outlines data quality which consists of validity and reliability as well as assuming the penenelitian consists of a test of normality, its homogeneity and linieritas.

X4 = P41*X1 + P42*X2 + P43*X3 + ? Y = Py4*X4 + Py1*X1 + Py2*X2 + Py3*X3 + ?

Description:

Y = Lecturer performance

X4 = lecturer job satisfaction

X1 = Compensation

X2 = Empowerment lecturer

X3 = Lecturer competencies

P = path coefficient

ε = obstacle

4. Result and Discussion

4.1. Description of Respondents and Variables

The respondents in this study consists of 3 graduates (2.89%) lecturers, 92 people (88.46%) master's degree graduates and 9 people (8.65%) are Doctoral graduates.

Table 4.1: Validity variable

Variable R critical R count The questionnaire Score Exp.
Rbelow Rupper Min. Max.
Lecturer performance 0.349 0.392 0.782 30 60 119 Valid
Compensation 0.381 0.350 0.465 25 50 99 Valid
Empowerment lecturer 0.349 0.368 0.654 25 51 107 Valid
Lecturer competencies 0.355 0.562 0.777 25 50 104 Valid
Lecturer competencies 0.349 0.368 0.616 20 25 78 Valid

4.3 Classic Assumtion Test

4.3.1. Test Normality Results .

This normality test aims to study whether the distribution of selected samples that derived from a population that distribute normally or not. Test study on normallitas using IBM SPSS software 24 assistance. Data distribution is said to be normal when the significance value (komogorof- Smirnova) > 0.05

Tests of Normality
Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic Df Sig. Statistic Df Sig.
X1 .068 104 .200* .988 104 .493
X2 .074 104 .187 .986 104 .360
X3 .069 104 .200* .988 104 .452
X4 .071 104 .200* .962 104 .005
Y .067 104 .200* .987 104 .406
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Test Normality Results

Based on the results of test of normality as stated in Table 42 above, it can be concluded that all variables distribute normally because the value significance of > 005 So the terms of (assuming) path analysis of error normality equation regression estimates are met

4.3.2 Test results of homogeneity.

Homogeneity data means that data has a variation or diversity of equal value or statistically the same. So the emphasis of homogeneity data is contained on the diversity of the variance or the standard deviation of the data. Homogeneity data is a requirement which is recommended to be tested statistically.[25]

This research uses the formulation of its homogeneity of variance test with Fmaks Hartley

Group N Db S2
X1 104 103 135.6698
X2 104 103 128.2181
X3 104 103 122.1792
X4 104 103 126.5586
Y 104 103 153.5906

Calculation of variance homogeneity tests

Because the Fmaks is less than Ftabel, then the fifth distribution of samples have the same variance or homogeneous.

4.3.3 Test result Linieritas linieritas

This test aims to find out whether two variables have a linear relationship or not significantly. The following table 3 presents the results of a test of linieritas by using IBM SPSS software 24 assistance.4.

NO. Group Ftable Fcount Summary
1 X1 to Y 0.99 1.39 Linier
2 X2 to Y 1.34 1.39 Linier
3 X3 to Y 1.22 1.39 Linier
4 X4 ke Y 1.32 1.39 Linier
5 X1 ke X4 1.09 1.39 Linier
6 X2 ke X4 1.04 1.39 Linier
7 X3 ke X4 1.20 1.39 Linier

5. Discussion Hipothesis

Based on the results of linieritas tests like in table 43, then it appears that the linieritas test for the entire Fo < Fcritical That means, the entire regression line equation in the model are linear

To test the hypothesis the researcher used Packages Program (Software) LISREL version 9.30. The analysis Method using the method f SIMPLIS with syntax, while also testing the hypothesis of the study.

a. Calculation of the coefficient on line on Structural Sub 1

causal relationships between variables in sub structural 1 consists of one endogenous variable, namely the performance of (Y) and the four variables exogenous namely compensation (X1), empowerment (X2), competence (X3) and job satisfaction (X4). Structural equation 1 Y = Py1X1 + Py2X2 + Py3X3 + Py4X4 + ε. Causal relationships between variables on structural sub 1 can be seen in Figure 4.1.

Figure 4. 1:

The results of the data processing by using the assistance software LISREL 9.30 Student can be seen in the following equation:

Y = 0.463 + 0.179*X1 + 0.219*X2 + 0.190*X Errorvar.=14.731, R²= 0.904

Standerr (0.0779) (0.0997) (0.112) (0.100) (2.073)

Z-values 5.946 1.790 1.956 1.886 7.106

P-values 0.000 0.073 0.050 0.059 0.000

Based on the results of path analysis structural sub 1 as shown in the equation above, each of the retrieved value:

Py1 = βy1 = 0.179 [t = 1.790]

Py2 = βy2 = 0.219 [t = 1.956]

Py3 = βy3= 0.190 [t = 1.886]

Py4 = βy4=[t = 5.946]

The results of the analysis showed that all of the coefficients are significant at the α = line 0.05, since all thitung greater than ttabel = 1.66. Based on the results of the LISREL 9.30 Student can be expressed that the influence of direct Compensation (X₁) against against performance (Y) of 0.179; Empowerment Lecturer (X2) against performance (Y) by 0.219; competence (X3) against the performance of (Y) of 0.190; job satisfaction (X4) against performance (Y) of 0463. Collectively contribute of 0.904 or 90.4%. A Variant means of compensation (X1), empowerment (X2), competence (X3) and job satisfaction (X4) collectively can account for 90.4% of the performance variant of the Professor Unwir (Y).

b. calculation of the coefficient on line on Structural Sub 2

Causal relationships between variables in sub structural 2 consists of one endogenous variable which is job satisfaction (XFigure 4.2 3). Structural equation 2 which is X4 = P41X1 + P42X2 + P43 X3 + ε. Causal relationships between variables on structural sub 2 can be seen in 4) and three variables exogenous namely compensation (X1), empowerment (X2) and competence (X

Figure 4.2:

The results of the data processing by using the assistance software LISREL 9.30 Student can be seen in the following equation:

X4 = 0.134*X1 + 0.342*X2 + 0.522*X3, Errorvar.= 24.008, R = 0.834 Standerr (0.127) (0.139) (0.117) (3.378) Z-values 1.955 2.461 4.450 7.106 P-values 0.291 0.014 0.000 0.000

P-values 0.291 0.014 0.000 0.000

Based on the results of path analysis structural sub 2 as shown in the equation above, each of the retrieved value:

P41 = ?41 = 0.134 [t = 1.955] P42 = ?y2 = 0.342 [t = 2.461] P43 = ?y3 = 0.522 [t = 4.450]

The results of the analysis showed that all of the coefficients are significant at the α = line 0.05, since all thitung greater than ttabel = 1.66. Based on the results of the LISREL 9. X 3) towards job satisfaction (X4) of 0.522. Collectively contribute of 83.4%. A Variant means of compensation (X1), empowerment (X2), and competence (X3) collectively can account for 83.4% X4Variant.30 Student can be expressed that the influence of direct Compensation (X₁) towards job satisfaction (X4) of 0.13 4; Empowerment Lecturer (X2) towards job satisfaction (X4) of 0.342; competence (

The results of the calculation of the coefficients of sub paths structural 1 and sub 2 structural can be summarized and presented in Table 4.4.

NO. VB PL PTL VIA VT TOTAL PP rij
X4
1 X1 0.128 t=1.071* - X4 0.134 0.006 0.870
2 X1 0.166 t=2.117* 0.062 t=1.054* Y 0.240 0.012 0.900
3 X2 0.322 t=2.497* - X4 0.342 0.02 0.889
4 X2 0.200 t=3.031* 0.158 t=2.308* Y 0.377 0.019 0.913
5 X3 0.486 t=4.515* - X4 0.522 0.036 0.898
6 X3 0.171 t=4.101 0.242 t=3.615* Y 0.431 0.018 0.910
7 X4 0.45 t=6.033* - Y 0.463 0.013 0.926

Summary of the results of the calculation of the coefficients of the Model line

Description:

VB: free Variables; VT: variable

PL: direct influence; PTL: indirect Influence

PP: The Influence of False (Spurious)

* Significant at the 0.05 level)

Based on the results of the calculation of the coefficients of sub paths structural 1 and sub 2 and overall structural diagram of the path variables x 1, x 2, X 3 and X 4 against Y can be described as in Figure 4.14.

a. Uji Goodness Of Fit Statistics (GOF)

Goodness-of-Fit Statistics

Degrees of Freedom for (C1)-(C2) 0

Maximum Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square (C1) 0.00 (P = 1.0000)

Browne's (1984) ADF Chi-Square (C2_NT) 0.0 (P = 1.0000)

The Model is Saturated, the Fit is Perfect !

The above statistics provide information that shows the GOF indicators The Fit is Perfect which may imply that the model can be accepted. Therefore, it can be dsimpulkan that the model line matches or corresponds to the constellation research.

6. Conclusion

Based on the formulation of the problem, theoritical study, theoritical frameworks and research results, then it can be concluded that:

  1. Compensation gives positive effect on UNWIR lecturers’ performance. That is, if the compensation is increased it will result in increased performance UNWIR lecturers.

  2. Empowerment gives positive influential on UNWIR lecturers’ performance. That is, if the empowerment of lecturers increased then it will result in increased of UNWIR lecturers’ performance.

  3. Competence gives positive effect on performance of UNWIR lecturers. That is, if the competencies of lecturer are increasing then it will result in increased performance UNWIR lecturers.

  4. Job satisfaction gives positive effect towarda lecturer’s the performance of UNWIR lecturers. This means that when job satisfaction is increased then it will result in the increased UNWIR lecturers’ performance.

  5. Compensation gives positive effect to lecturers’ job satisfaction in UNWIR. That is, if the compensation is increased then it will lead to increased job satisfaction of UNWIR lecturers.

  6. Empowering give positive effect to lecturers job satisfaction in UNWIR. That is, if the empowerment of lecturers increased then it will lead to increased job satisfaction of UNWIR lecturers.

  7. Competence gives positive effect to lecturers’ job satisfaction in UNWIR. That is, if the competence is increasing then it will lead to increased job satisfaction of UNWIR lecturers.

7. Acknowledgement

Based on the research findings or conclusions as presented above, this research has implications:

  1. Compensation and performance lecturer1. Compensation and performance lecturer

  1. Compensation is important for lecturers because compensation not only as a tool to meet the necessities of life. In addition, the magnitude of the compensation will reflect the size of their prices. However, the University's point of view to see that the biggest expenses as compensation (labor cost) so that compensation could be said as a tool to influence lecturers. Based on things that could be interpreted if compensation with incentive indicators, wages, salary, and benefits directly received a lecturer then it will result in increased performance of UNWIR lecturers. Compensation is important for lecturers because compensation not only as a tool to meet the necessities of life. In addition, the magnitude of the compensation will reflect the size of their prices. However, the University's point of view to see that the biggest expenses as compensation (labor cost) so that compensation could be said as a tool to influence lecturers. Based on things that could be interpreted if compensation with incentive indicators, wages, salary, and benefits directly received a lecturer then it will result in increased performance of UNWIR lecturers.

  2. Empowerment and Lecturers performance2. Empowerment and Lecturers performance

  3. Competence and lecturer performance3. Competence and lecturer performance

  4. Job satisfaction and performance4. Job satisfaction and performance

  5. Compensation and lecturer job satisfaction5. Compensation and lecturer job satisfaction

  6. Empowerment and job satisfaction of lecturers6. Empowerment and job satisfaction of lecturers

  7. Competence and job satisfaction lecturer7. Competence and job satisfaction lecturer

This finding is supported by the opinion of Steven c. Howey which States that cognitive social satisfaction contributing factors can be narrowed down into three invalid constructs: hope, satisfaction, value and affection (love to be).[26] The statement can be interpreted that if the professor was given a good compensation, then the performance will go up, and vice versa.

This research in accordance with the results of previous studies carried out by the existence of the correlation Sopiah positively variable compensation on performance.[27]

Lecturer duties are to carry out education, research and servis to community service. To carry out these tasks are not easy because a lot of the challenges are yet to resolve. Lecturer is a scientists who are able to embody his idea become reality it is required with the research he does when professors get a chance and trust from the university, he will become a qualified lecturer, in other word, lecturer empowerment with the indicators of responsibility toward his job, a cooperative work culture, consciousness of lecturers to complete his work, contribute thought and respect for every donations increased, then lecturer of thinking resulted in the performance of UNWIR lecturers increases.

The findings of this study are in line with the Research of Razavinejhad and Mohammad Rahim Najafzadeh that examines the influence of teacher empowerment towards job satisfaction and performance of teachers. The results of his research concluded that empowering effective teachers to improve performance. According to his findings, teacher empowerment proved effective in helping teachers to have good performance.[28] In addition to that, also in accordance with the research done D. Suresh and N. Abdul Jaleel showed that empowerment lecturer, both in written and oral form, increasing job satisfaction, and also performance.[29]

The position of a lecturer as professional job serves to enhance the dignity and role of the lecturer as agents of learning, the development of SCIENCE and art as well as community service. To carry out these roles, lecturers must have the characteristics of knowledge and skill that is characterized by improving in professional quality. In other words, the lecturer has the characteristics of knowledge and skills will not experience difficulties when he undertakes the Tri Dharma universities. This means if the competence of the lecturers with the indicators of effective implementation, effective responsibility, skill owned lecturer, professional quality in work and the knowledge owned by the lecturers increased, it will be resulted in increased performance of UNWIR lecturers.

This research was supported by the results of research carried out by Lotunani et.al Alamsyah., which States that "The effect of competence on civil servants performance, based on PLS data analysis, it is found that there are positive and significant effect of the employees competence on their performance. Its's path is 0530]3 with P-value = 0000 < 0.05.,"[4

When lecturers are satisfied in working of course they will be more motivated to give their best of ability to perform the duties of his job. This gives the meaning that job satisfaction with indicators of relationship with colleagues, the results of the work of professors, opportunities of promotion and surveillance is increasing, then it will result in a performance UNWIR lecturers increases.

The findings of this study are in line with research findings of Almadar Hussain Khan, et al who stated that "The study was conducted to find out the determinants of job ssatisfaction and impact of job satisfaction on the employee performance in the autonomous medical institutions of health department of Pakistan".[31]

The granting of compensation based on a sense of Justice will create a rewarding system which makes the harmonious relationship between workers with employers, thus motivating lecturers to do their tasks and responsibilities better. Motivated lecturers will be able to resurrect the spirit of work, and get a job satisfaction. In other words, if compensation with the indicators of incentive, wages, salary, and benefits direct goods increases, it will lead to increasing job satisfaction of UNWIR lecturers.

These findings support the opinions of Jamilu b. Salisu, Ezekiel Chinyio and Subashini Suresh, their research results that "This research has provided a very significant contribution to the literature on relationship between compensation and public sector construction workers ' job satisfaction in Jigawa State, Nigeria".[32] This research shows how important the compensation towards workers job satisfaction in Nigeria. This statement relates to compensation. Thus, the statement meant that compensation may have a value and usability for life will bring up job satisfaction.

Empowerment of lecturers are the obligation of University that have to do in order for lecturers to be able to develop and master Science and Technology by providing confidence and support fully to the lecturers that they feel recognised and appreciated. In other words, if empowerment of lecturers with the indicators of the responsibility of professors against his job each, a cooperative work culture, consciousness of professors to complete his work, give the sumbanan thoughts and appreciation any donations towards the thought of a lecturer, then lecturer job satisfaction UNWIR resulted in increased.

The above results are supported by research conducted by Surekha Rana stated, "Employee empowerment leads towards higher levels of employees ' job satisfaction and findings indicate that three dimensions of empowerment i.e. meaning, impact and self-determination have significant influence on job satisfaction".[33]

Competency on one side can be observed easily through knowledge or skills. However, there are other competencies not easily observed as the motive, the nature and attitude. A college lecturer has a motive, trait, attitude, knowledge and skills, when they undertake the tasks and responsibilities would not have trouble. So they would feel satisfied in their work. This gives the meaning if the competence of the lecturers with the indicators of effective implementation, effective responsibility, skill owned lecturer, professional quality in work and the knowledge owned by the lecturers increased, it will be result in increased UNWIR lecturer job satisfaction.

The findings of this research supported opinion of Ebata stating that there are three factors that affect job satisfaction, namely: confidence, succed experience and satisfaction.[29] A person who has knowledge about basic concepts of performance of course he would feel confident to be able to resolve issues or activities that had to do with the basic concept that has been mastered. It will be a motivation to solve the problem that related with it. Mastering of basic concept of knowledge or skills will affect job satisfaction of a person so will continuously learning it. So, if anyone feels capable with high competence, then they would be able to finish their work well. Thus, hope this will cause job satisfaction so that will get motivated to learn.

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Article Details


Issue: Vol. 6 No. 05 (2018)
Page No.: EL-2018-305-316
Section: Education And Language
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v6i5.el02

How to Cite

Hr., S., & Dr.Wibowo, P. (2018). The Effect of Compensation, Empowerment, Competency and Job Satisfaction toward Performance of Lecture in Wiralodra Universiti of Indramayu. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 6(05), EL-2018. https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v6i5.el02

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