The use of nuclear energy has many economic, social and environmental implications due, on the one hand, to the uses to produce usable energy for industries and other sectors, and on the other hand, to the uses for war purposes. Some minor and major accidents related to waste management, mishandling of equipment and natural disasters have created lasting impacts in the areas affected and their surroundings. In Latin America, there are six nuclear reactors distributed in Mexico, Argentina and Brazil, and other smaller units that operate with nuclear energy. Argentina and Brazil have future plans to expand their operations in their nuclear plants. The implications of the goals of these nations must be considered, in a rapidly changing world in which political, economic and environmental instability increase. The challenges of climate change and the prevalent risks of other unexpected natural phenomena should be considered as potentially elevated costs to the human health and the environment if these phenomena have a negative impact over nuclear reactors.