Economics and Management

Productivity Entrepreneurship for Alumnus Apprenticenship Kenshusei (Study Phenomenology Kenshusei Im Japan)

Farida Suldina, Muchlis R. Luddin, Makruf Akbar,
Article Date Published : 1 February 2018 | Page No.: EM-2018-132-143 | Google Scholar


Download data is not yet available.


The purpose of this research is to describe the apprenticeship (means: Kenshusei in Japanese Language) program from Indonesia to Japan. This program has been started from 1992 between Indonesian Government, which was represented by Ministry of Labor Republic Indonesia, and Foreign Apprenticeship Institution Japan, IM Japan.

The goal of this Apprenticeship program to Japan is to get transfer technology and to understand for all Japanese culture, which is the most famous culture are discipline and high work ethic.

After finished, apprenticeship program, Kenshusei is hoped to return back home and build their own business. However, being an entrepreneur is not easy: how to increase entrepreneurship productivity level, how to understand about Japanese business culture and character for Process transfering knowledge to all apprenticeships will be research more deeply. The method used of this research is Qualitative, Phenomenology.

Productivity Entrepreneurship for Alumnus Apprenticenship Kenshusei

(Study Phenomenology Kenshusei Im Japan)


Indonesian Workers (TKI) in Japan or commonly known by the term apprentice does have characteristics different from workers who are in Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Arab countries. The objective of this apprenticeship program is the development of human resources through the improvement of skills and the graduation of engineering sciences through a three-year work program at small and medium enterprises in Japan which are expected to participate in the era of global competition. From the technological aspect, apprenticeship is a program to increase the individual's ability in a certain sector to reach the level of ability in a scope of work with indication of being able to practice individually.

According to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia number 13 of 2003 on Employment, apprenticeship is defined as a system of work training that is organized in an integrated manner between training in training institutions by working directly under the guidance and supervision of instructors or workers who are more experienced in the process of producing goods and / or services in the company to master certain skills or expertise.

Apprenticeship is a system of on-the-job training organized in training institutions by working directly under the guidance and supervision of experienced instructors or workers in the apprenticeship process at the company to acquire certain skills or skills that will be useful to the apprentice.

Apprenticeship program to Japan or commonly called "Kenshusei" (Fatah, 2007: 20) is a 3-year apprenticeship program organized by a non-government agency granting access to Indonesia's workforce for internship in this limited study only to IM Japan Institute for the purpose of: training while working to prepare workers who have a certain skill or skilled, reliable, and have expertise in a particular field, and competence that they can sell later when returning to the country. Later on, when all apprentices have completed the entire apprenticeship program, they will get a test of material and practice (competency test). If they are successful, then all apprentices will get a certificate from the Training Institute. The purpose of the competency test is to gain recognition of the success of all the programs that have been followed, plus all the interns have been paid by the recipient institution for internship insurance coverage such as accident, health and death insurance.

As a country that will accept apprentices, Japan has different types of work training. Here are the types of job training in Japan. There are 60 types of work practices:

No Type of work No Type of work
1 Plates work for building construction 27 Buildings Painting
2 Plastic making and forming 28 Metal Painting
3 Setting up a building scaffold 29 Coloring
4 Water furniture 30 Packing
5 Operator of metal press machine 31 Stone processing / installation
6 Dyeing / spinning operator 32 Metal plate processing
7 Blacksmith 33 Measurement
8 Coating / plastering walls 34 Tailoring
9 Installation of roof tile 35 Book binding
10 Installation of frame / window 36 Distribution of concrete materials
11 Installation of boards / lanes for concrete 37 Final completion
12 Installation of construction equipment 38 Completion of the final spatial layout
13 Installation of air conditioning equipment 39 Garment production
14 Installation of concrete frames for buildings 40 Practice electric machine
15 Tile installation 41 Assembling electronics equipment
16 Manufacture of construction equipment. 42 Printing
17 Baking 43 Timber
18 Processing of processed foods made from cooked fish. 44 Machinery
19 Maintenance of machines 45 Packaging feeding from fish
20 Inspection of the machines 46 Electroplating / Coating Electrical
21 Installation of interior paper 47 Foundry production
22 Piping 48 Aluminum hardening process
23 Making men's clothes 49 Plastic strengthening process
24 Forging iron. 50 Manufacture of sleeping equipment
25 Canned food canning 51 Printed Control panel creation
26. Drilling 52 Packaging box making

1 List of Job Training Types in Japan

From the results of research that researchers have done to the 26 respondents from interviewing the 22 respondents, they said that they can save between 10% -50% of income received every month. Four people say, they can save above 50%. So the conclusion that can be withdrawn is that the money that will be brougth back to Indonesia is a lot ranging from 2,000,000 - 4,000,000 Yen for 3 years or about Rp. 200,000,000 - 400 million. That is enough to make an independent business. In addition, for a former apprentice employee from IM Japan, each person will be given money around 600,000 yen because as long as they follow the apprenticeship, their income is deducted for savings and it can only be taken after completing the internship program. Thus, if in total with the money stock they will receive, then per person of the apprentices can collect about 300 to 500 millions rupiah.

The amounts mentioned above do not include "nenkin" or Pension funds, which they have been paid monthly with their pay cut by 10,000 yen or around Rp. 24 millions.

In starting entrepreneurship, knowledge and experience are also needed, considering that ex-laborers have different educational background. So it is important that former entrepreneurs who want to open a business must have knowledge that can manage his business successfully so that later, he/she can run his/her business successfully. Many ways can be used by novice entrepreneur in doing business: Optimizing Networking, using market-oriented strategy of marketing / marketing the right product because business in any world today is very global. Novice entrepreneur are expected not to take the wrong step in choosing the type of business.

For this reason, knowledge of entrepreneurship and field experience are not required in the education world. For Indonesian youth, especially SMK graduates, this apprenticeship program will be very useful to gain experience internationally because later after completing the internship program, he/she is expected to apply what has been gained and learned during the internship in Japan to improve entrepreneurship in Indonesia

Theoritical Review

Govt. Sending Manpower Internship from Indonesia to Japan, Contribution of former apprentices to productivity enhancement of independent enterprises, and the role of Government through the Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration and the Ministry of Cooperatives and Small and Medium Enterprises towards the improvement of Small and Medium Enterprises.

Understanding Human Resource Management

Etymologically, the word management comes from the Old French term ‘ménagement’ which means the art of carrying out and organizing. While terminologically, the experts define management in a variety of ways, including:

Lewis (2004: 5) defines management as: “the process of administering and coordinating resources effectively and efficiently in an effort to achieve the goals of the organization.” The opinion is more or less means that management is the process of managing and coordinating resources effectively and efficiently as an effort to achieve organizational goals.

Follet (1999) defines management as art in completing work through others. According to Stoner (2006: 8) the management is the process of planning, organizing, directing, and supervising the efforts of members of the organization and the use of human resources of other organizations in order to achieve organizational goals that have been established. Management as a science field attempts systematically to understand why and how humans work together to achieve goals and makes this system more useful for humanity.

Terry (2005: 45) gives management a sense of a process or framework, which involves guiding or directing a group of people toward organizational goals or real intentions. It includes knowledge of what to do, setting out how to do it, understanding how they should do it, and measuring the effectiveness of the efforts it has undertaken.

From several definitions mentioned above, it can be concluded that management is a joint effort to determine and achieve organizational goals with the implementation of the functions of planning, organizing, implementation, and supervision (controlling).

Of the three understanding of management above, the authors summarize the notion of management is "the art in achieving organizational goals by way of coordination of resources from start planning, organizing, and leadership so that it can be resolved efficiently and effectively.

Various understandings of human resources which have been expressed by various experts have made it clea that human being is the most important element. So that the selection of human resources in a company is done by a process that is arranged in such a way from the selection of employees, placement that must be tightly selected, and trainings conducted in the development of quality and ability to increase work performance and fulfillment of organizational goals so that the employees become human who can generate / create new, innovative, and have creative thoughts.

From the description above, it can be concluded that Human Resource Management is a process of activities that have been prepared to achieve the goal by utilizing human as a producer of work efficiently with attention to the balance to meet the satisfaction of the heart between the human as a member of the organization and organizational goals. This means that HR Management in an effort to achieve organizational goals will always pay attention and will not ignore the decisions of human beings as social beings who have feelings and ideals that vary from one to another. So in achieving its goals, the company is able to provide satisfaction to the workers.

Understanding Internship

Internship is a learning process that contains elements of learning while working. Citizens studying as interns will familiarize themselves with the work process followed by the apprentice. According to Verner in the journal (1993) in the journal Gi Yong Koo (2016: 30), an internship has been used as a method of acquiring skills in many jobs for hundreds of years. Internships have been part of the curriculum at higher education institutions since the 1830s.

Apprenticeship is part of an integrated job training system between training in training institutions by working directly under the guidance and supervision of instructors or more experienced workers in the production process of goods and / or services within the company in order to master the skills or certain expertise.

According to Narayan, Olk, and Fukami in the journal Michael Odio (2017: 23-24) apprentices benefit the career of the individual and for the organization that holds the internship program. The recruitment process can be different when recruiting new employees. Many unpaid internships are technically not considered employees, so when apprenticeship recruitment is not in accordance with human resource standards, it seems less formal. In addition, many prospective apprentices perceive that the intern is a "stepping stone" in a career as a beginner.

According to Sudjana (in Rusidi), apprenticeship is a way of disseminating information done in an organized manner. Internship is one of the subjects that must be completed by every student as a way of preparing to become a pro-active human resource that is ready for work.

According to Sumardiono (201 4: 116) apprenticeship is the learning process of an expert through real-world activities. In addition, apprenticeship is the process of practicing knowledge and skills to solve real problems around. The internship program will be a valuable experience for the intern. If a company wants to start a program for apprenticeship, some key concepts must be included to ensure that the company and the person doing the internship get the most out of the following: (1) oral communication practice; (2) opportunity for written communication; (3) direct field-related experience; and (4) career guidance. So it can be said that the apprenticeship can be a productive and educative experience if the trainee is given responsibility and mentoring.

Figure 1. Apprenticeship in Japan

Thus, it can be concluded that the apprenticeship is training or practice to master certain skills under the guidance and supervision of experienced instructors.

In general, the intern will get a payment of 80,000 Yen in the first year. This figure can not be called a salary because under the Labor Act in Japan, it is still categorized as Kenshusei or trainee (training student). In the second and third year, it is referred to as Jisshusei (apprentice) with a salary of about 100,000 Yen per month excluding overtime pay, food allowance, health insurance, retirement, etc. the amount of which depends on each company policy.

The concept of Entrepreneurship

The term entrepreneurship in the Indonesian language has several words that are often interpreted the same, among them are ‘wiraswasta’, ‘pengusaha’, ‘pedagang’, ‘saudagar’, and the last ‘wirausaha’. Lupiyoadi (2007: 2) says that Entrepreneurs or entrepreneurship is a brave person who takes risks to open a business in various chance. Entrepreneurial activities can be done alone or in groups. In the mind of an entrepreneur, he/she is always trying to find, utilize business opportunities that can provide benefits.

According to Hendro (2011: 4) entrepreneurship is the ability to assemble and empower all that is owned. It should be realized that the current academic knowledge alone is not enough to be stock in the future. Although one graduated with a very good predicate, but if the his/her academic knowledge (achievement) is not equipped with skills (skill) or other skills, it is not enough.

According to Thomas W. Zimmerer (2008: 16) entrepreneurship is the application of creativity and innovation to solve problems and efforts to exploit the opportunities faced by people every day. According to Andrew J. Dubrin (2008: 10) entrepreneur is someone who establishes and runs an innovative business.

From the view of experts, it can be concluded that entrepreneurship is the ability in creative thinking and innovative behavior that serve as the basis, resources, driving force, goal tactics, tips and processes in facing life challenges.

Understanding Training

Education as a system in the universal development has two sub-systems, namely: sub-system of school education and sub system of education outside school, both of which have equal importance. For the purposes of this study, Pernios studies more about off-school education.

Training is educational programs both in writing (theory) and not consisting of soft skill education program or hard skill in order to improve the competence of the training participants in a more qualified direction. Furthermore, it distinguishes the notion of apprenticeship with training. From the above explanation, it can be concluded that the difference between apprenticeship and training is that training is a learning effort in practice that aims to generate, stimulate, and build a person's skills (individually or in groups) in accordance with the target time that has been specified. While apprenticeship is a whole training process that is practiced in the world of work directly accompanied by mentors..

According to Sofyandi (2008: 13) training is a program that is expected to provide stimulus to someone to be able to improve skills in certain jobs and gain general knowledge and understanding of the overall work environment and organization. Meanwhile, according to Sirait (2007: 41) training is more directed to the skills for the current position.

In addition, Panggabean (2007: 102) defines training as a means used to provide or improve the skills needed when carrying out work in the present.

From the above explanation, it can be concluded that the difference between apprenticeship and training is that training is a learning effort in practice that aims to generate, stimulate and build a person's skills (individually or in groups) in accordance with the target time that has been specified. While apprenticeship is a whole training process that is practiced in the world of work directly with directly accompanied by supervisor.

Understanding Productivity

Increased productivity and efficiency are the main sources of growth to achieve sustainable development. Conversely, high and sustainable growth is also an important element in maintaining a continuous increase in long-term productivity. With the same amount of labor and capital, output growth will increase faster if the quality of both resources increases. Although theoretically the factors of production can be specified, the measurement of its contribution to the output of a production process is often confronted with difficulties.

Meanwhile, according to Hansen and Mowen in the journal T. Akita (2000: 270) translated by Hermawan in his book Management Accounting, they explains as follows: "Productivity is related to making output efficiently and specifically refers to the relationship between output (output) and input (raw materials) used to produce output. "

According to Umar (2007: 80), productivity is as follows: "Productivity has two dimensions, the first dimension is the effectiveness that leads to the achievement of maximum performance that is achievement of targets related to quality, quantity, and time. The second is Efficiency relating to the effort to compare input with the realization of its use or how the work is done, the conclusion of productivity is as follows: mental attitude that always holds that the quality of life today must be better than yesterday and tomorrow must be better than today ".

Klingner and Nanbaldian (2007: 2) suggests productivity is a multiplication puncture of the employee effort, which is supported by high motivation, with the ability of employees (abilities) obtained through exercises. In addition to productivity linkages with human resources effort, productivity also has a linkage with efficiency, effectiveness, and quality.

Based on the above definition, it can be concluded that companies or organizations should pay attention to how they convert resources (input) into output. The outputs may be manufactured products, goods sold or services provided. Output is an important tool because without the output or gathering of results, it is not productivity. This shows the effectiveness in achieving an outcome, so that the product can be constrained as to how efficiently the input is converted into output because the input factor declares the minimum resource usage.

The importance of productivity in promoting wellbeing has been universally recognized, there is no type of human activity that does not benefit from increased productivity as the power to produce more goods or services. Increased productivity also results in a direct increase in the standard of living under conditions of distribution, the same from productivity gains that correspond to labor inputs. Productivity is important in improving and maintaining the company in terms of producing goods or services that basically can not be separated from the increase and effectiveness of labor quality as a human resource that is crucial for the survival of the company


This research uses qualitative method with phenomenology approach. Creswel in Raco & Tanod (2010: 429) distinguishes five types of qualitative research ie biography, phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory and case studies. One method that can be used to deeply understand the "cultural changes" that former retired interns once returned to their homeland is trying their best to find work, but now they are thinking how to create the job itself. The feasible method associated with the above exposure is the method of phenomenology.

This research is a different phenomenological research with positivistic research. In a positivistic essence methodology is fact as a real object, while phenomenology regards the world as one of the facts constructed with intersubjectivity. Thus, this research uses phenomenology method with the intent to analyze the phenomenon as it is and look for noumena or essence hidden behind the phenomenon that occurred.

Research Result And Discussion

Discussion of Research Results

All applicants participate in the preparation of regional recruitment process including Japanese language materials, mathematics, physical endurance readiness, and interview techniques for 2-3 months. Participants follow the selection of regional recruitment (administrative examination, chance, math test, physical endurance, interview), then is sent to BPLKLN Cevest Bekasi.

In addition, researchers get data from IM Japan representative office in cevest Bekasi, regarding data of trainee participants to Japan (former Kenshusei) IM Japan Year 2008 - 2015 which are listed in the table below:

1 JUN 2008 - MAR 2009 1100 125 193
2 APR 2009 - MAR 2010 1067 145 259
3 APR 2010 - MAR 2011 980 160 232
4 APR 2011 - MAR 2012 950 124 200
5 APR 2012 - MAR 2013 426 117 200
6 APR 2013 - MAR 2014 745 115 180
7 APR 2014 - MAR 2015 775 124 172
8 APR 2015 - NOV 2015 404 110 170

IM Japan Year 2008 - 2015

Source: IM Japan, 2015

The data we received from IM Japan for the number of interns from IM Japan from 2008 to 2015 amount to approximately 9558 people, but only about 5268 people who became entrepreneurs. That means only about 52% become entrepreneurs. Meanwhile, the current Minister of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia Mr. Hanif Dadiri targets to create around 28,000 new entrepreneurs per year. Because according to him, the size of a minister of a country can be said as advance if the number of entrepreneurs reach 2 percent of the total population. However, entrepreneurs in Indonesia currently only reach 1.65 percent while in , Malaysia the number of entrepreneurs is 4 percent and Thailand is 7 percent. "



No Sender Agency Leaving Returned Still abroad
1 IM Japan (1993 - 2016) 37.423 31.407 6.016
2 LPK (2002 - 2016) 18.474 9.150 9.324
3 Perusahaan (2002 - 2016) 3.476 3.471 5
4 Lembaga Pendidikan (2002 - 2016) 1.021 1.021 -
5 JWEC (2007 - 2016) 101 101 -
6 Shikamachi (1993 - 2016) 233 229 4
T O T A L 60.728 45.379 15.349
Source: Ministry of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia, 2016.

The results of the discussion of research on the impact of the beginning, mid and end of the apprenticeship and methods of instructor teaching and the influence of the surrounding environment on improving self-employment kenshusei.

  1. The results of the first study and discussion of the beginning of the apprenticeship are:

  2. The main things before the process of apprenticeship delivery are: remuneration, job placement, rest time, overtime hours, the existence of contract work and others so that in the future, there will be no misperception. In addition, another thing that also need to be seen is a problem in the empowerment of interns who have returned to their homeland.

  3. There should be a suitability of the type of work while they are still in Indonesia with jobs received in Japan. For example: in Indonesia, they choose to work in a garment company, after leaving from Japan, they should get a job in the same field.

  4. The initial fee for prospective apprentices who do not have the money has to be assisted in the process of departure such as financing the manufacture, passport, and for daily supplies, because the prospective worker has been passed the test. It is unlike the "Sending Organization / SO" policy of Non IM Japan located in Depok area which already has its own cooperative under the name Koperasi Mandiri Kenshusei Indonesia (KMKI). IM Japan should find a solution to help the prospective apprentice to get funding.

  5. The apprenticeship agency should provide the Laboratory equipment such as the Construction Laboratory of the tool, which may be considered appropriate, for areas such as garments, and other laboratory equipment / training equipments that are already feasible.

  6. The training of instructors should be conducted, not only introduction of basic languages and information about the work, but also for the whole of each field. So that later they can work while in Japan, and in the placement of work that should be in accordance with the expertise of each apprentice. For example one who chooses automotive should be placed in automotive, in the garment placed according to ability and desire of the apprentice.

  7. Results Discussion on Mid-Term Apprenticeship

  1. Apprentices should be in the first years because they have grown up maturely. After they get the first salary, they should be diligent to save and there must be a discourse to save later after arriving to the homeland in order to open a business. This criterion is used with the consideration that these former workers have had enough work experience from the company where they work.

  2. The apprentices should think to live frugally, save diligently, so that later they can open a business or at least bring the money from the work to be an capital for something.

  3. Apprentices who have worked for many years should be able to deepen and utilize theories while in a superpower country such as Japan, learn, and network from around the world so that later when returning to the homeland, they don’t need to start a business from zero, but they are already in the process starting from being kenshusei.

  4. There should be a reliable instructor to be a role model when still in Japan, so after returning to the country, they can be success or at least they can increase technical skills and embed the culture of Japanese society.

  5. Results of Research and Discussion at the End of Apprenticeship

  1. Supposedly, at the end of apprenticeship for ex kenshusei who have returned to the homeland, the former Kenshusei has to understand the mechanical functions of the machine and so forth already.

  2. The link and match should be appropriate. It means there must be a skill when they get in Japan and it should be in accordance with the wishes of "form of business" that they will build / manage in Indonesia.

  3. According to the writer's opinion, there are 2 things to the success of SMEs in Indonesia. The first is the acquisition of venture capital from the work and skills / knowledge (experience) that have been obtained during apprenticeship. The second is need for cooperation between companies, government, and NGOs, in this case, to be assisted by former alumni of Kenshusei who have become entrepreneurs that is "Ikapeksi" as the wheel of NGOs that helps ex kenshusei who wants to open business field in Indonesia.

  4. In order for the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia to be advanced, Government is not only providing assistance but also training/seminars while in Japan and after returning to Indonesia, they are assisted by alumni who have successfully made an independent business.

  5. The government should pay attention to the former employers and special assistance in the field (UMKM) so that later they can run it well. In this case providing direction on how to start entrepreneurship is very necessary.

  6. The government should look for a more specific "container" with the same type of business or not. In essence, these former kenshusei want to be made some "similar containers" with the same set of people as they are, with the same business that they want. In this case the Government has to be able to assist them in the procurement of the container (networking).

  7. From the side of former Kenshusei workers, I think many of them want to open independent business after returning to Indonesia because they have brought enough capital and knowledge and insight in the field of business. From these criteria, it is expected that the influence of work experience during in Japan which is fostered and maintained will be obtained, and preferably, will be exchanged to its employees in its business unit because the work culture in Japan is renowned for its discipline, time, clean culture, and excellent kaizen method.

  8. Supposedly, there is assistance and capital assistance for making business in Indonesia for about 11 people who answered, that is, about 43%. For mentoring already stated above, the problem is the terms of labor / former employers.

Based on the results of the research / observation in the field, we found the results from interviews with "Mr. Edi Tugiono, as Head of the Development of Foreign Apprenticeship in the Ministry of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia" who said that ideally, "training is not only done when apprentices are in Japan, when they return to their homeland in this case, the government should "have to divide the task", where the duty is the Manpower Office, which is the Ministry of Cooperatives and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), where the tasks of Ikapeksi and others, he added.

The side of the government is still lack of support / assistance from the Government and senior who have succeeded or are exploring independent business to juniors or ex-Kenshusei who have newly arrived in the country or who have long returned to the homeland that will explore independent business. For that reason, the Government of Indonesia in 2012 established an organization called Ikapeksi so that the alumni / seniors are able to help former kenshusei who returns to Indonesia to be "accompanied, directed, guided" in the achievement of increasing their productivity to open independent business in Indonesia.

From the results of in-depth interviews of 26 resource persons, all of them answered the average as follows:

  • 1. Reason of attending internship to Japan (Kenshusei) ":

  • a. the will of parents = 1 = 4%.

  • b. Personal desire to get transfer of technical science in Japan = 2 = 7.5%

  • c. Personal desire that after graduating from the internship program, they can study in Japan = 2 = 7.5%

  • d. The desire to seek working capital when returning to the country to open employment = 19 = 73%

  • e. The desire to seek networking in Japanese companies, because they will open (own) independent business in the homeland = 1 = 4%.

  • f. hope to work in the same company as in Japan when returning to Indonesia (sister company) = 1 = 4%.

The central government and local governments can provide direction and legitimacy and facilitation to apprenticeship associations, thereby a responsible and measurable organizations can grow. It is called measurable because of the role of assisting members to apply overseas apprenticeship and increase the welfare of the community with the opening of employment opportunities from the business of former foreign apprentices. In the implementation of further counseling of apprenticeship alumni abroad, early identification and return need to be done to know the motivation and potential of apprentices whether to work as wage earners or work independently / entrepreneurship.

In addition to training and mentoring, it seems that access to capital is also one of the weaknesses felt in pioneering the business. Indeed this is a classic problem for either newly established entrepreneurs as well as established entrepreneurs who want to expand their business. Capital assistance, training and assistance in running the business is felt to be one combination of solutions that are effective enough for the government to do the ex-apprentices, especially those who choose entrepreneurship. Thus, to pioneer his/her business, he/she does not experience obstacles, which then affects their efforts to make progress.

Based on the above discussion, it can be concluded that education, mentoring and attention from the government and alumni are needed in order to realize the ideals of the former kenshusei who want to entrepreneurship, so as to help the former kenshusei to grow.

Apprenticeship Goals To Japan

The purpose of apprenticeship to Japan is to gain knowledge, to undergo training while working to become a skilled workforce, to have a clear competency based on their respective fields of science because the average of them is still in productive age category, to be developed after returning to Indonesia . Internship participants who return to Indonesia can be a multiplier effect that is beneficial to the environment and can be sampled for young people who still have a high work ethic, who aspire to become an entrepreneur. Multiplier effect after applying for 3 years in Japan can give contribution and get positive knowledge, and more if after returning to homeland, the former apprentices are expected to be able to make entrepreneurship or create minimum job opportunity for themselves, and can absorb a lot of manpower other work.

Table 4 Foreign Apprentice Data per June 2016

1 IM Japan (1993 - 2016) 37.423 31.407 6.016
2 LPK (2002 - 2016) 18.474 9.150 9.324
3 Perusahaan (2002 - 2016) 3.476 3.471 5
4 Lembaga Pendidikan (2002 - 2016) 1.021 1.021 -
5 JWEC (2007 - 2016) 101 101 -
6 Shikamachi (1993 - 2016) 233 229 4
  T O T A L 60.728 5.379 15.349
Source: ministry of manpower RI, 2016.

From the income per month, it can be concluded that the business situation they run has not been stable or have not found a job that is considered appropriate. Although not a few also have opinion that is quite large but still willing to leave.

Table 5 Data of Post-Apprentice Participants to Japan (Former Kenshusei) Im Japan 2008 - 2015

No Period Independent business Working in company And others
1 JUN 2008 - MAR 2009 1100 125 193
2 APR 2009 - MAR 2010 1067 145 259
3 APR 2010 - MAR 2011 980 160 232
4 APR 2011 - MAR 2012 950 124 200
5 APR 2012 - MAR 2013 426 117 200
6 APR 2013 - MAR 2014 745 115 180
7 APR 2014 - MAR 2015 775 124 172
8 APR 2015 - NOV 2015 404 110 170

(6477, 1020, 1606) 9103

  • From the survey conducted by IM Japan for former kesnhusei between 2008 - 2015 after the data collection, it can be concluded from approximately 9103 former apprenticeship as per Nov 2015, 71% said they will open independent business in Indonesia, as many as 11.5% work in the company - both domestic and foreign companies in Indonesia, while the remaining 17.5% are formerly unemployed Kenshusei - not yet self-sustaining, still in doubt, continuing his/her studies in Japan, including workers who did not complete the internship process in an unlawful sense.

  • Armed with the experience, they are expected to implement various economic activities for those who are as workers, self-employed, and entrepreneur. This certainly has a positive impact, including for those who are pioneering entrepreneur are expected to grow and develop into a business forward, so as to compete with its competitors. The continuity of the management will provide added value for them, which can determine success in entrepreneurship.

  • Based on the above discussion, I hope that this research can be useful, for the community especially those who have returned to their homeland, in order to utilize the knowledge and income that has been obtained during the apprenticeship, and develop channel to the students later, especially in the development of independent business .

Conclusions And Recommendations


Based on the results of the discussion and the empirical facts found during the in-depth study by confirming the concepts and theories as well as some previous research results relevant to the focus of this study, several conclusions in accordance with the focus and sub- focus research can be presented as follows:

  1. Kenshusei's apprenticeship process at the beginning of the process ": From some interviews with respondents, many of them answered that it is irrelevant when before going to Japan, Kenshsuei candidates are asked what kind of work they want when they arrive in Japan. Being asked for such questions, they expect "one hundred percent" to get the same kind of work they want.

  2. After passing the test and leaving the appointment, however, there are problems experienced by prospective apprentices: financial problems for prospective kenshusei who will leave for Japan and who have passed all the test stages and passed, but can not go to Japan for the reason "no money for the provision of early preparations for making passports, etc. ".

  3. The absence of socialization conducted by the Central and Regional Employment Ministries has to "hit" all corners of the archipelago, so there is no reason people do not know the apprenticeship program, they must maximize the use of existing technology trends such as the use of social media.

  4. The Kenshusei do not use the theory while in a superpower country like Japan, they do not learn and seek networking from now so that later when returning to indonesia, they do not need to start a business from zero, but they are already in the process starting from kenshusei. The government in this case has not been able to open more jobs for prospective workers / graduates of the school: university, vocational and other levels.

  5. The development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) seems slow to develop in Indonesia, especially those experienced by former kenshusei after returning to their homeland because they need experts in their field, especially the seniors who have opened independent business of a kind according to their wishes.

  6. In addition, the lack of cooperation between the Government, the Company, the NGOs and SMEs, to the former employers, results in many former less successful entrepreneurs. For that reason, there needs to be cooperation between companies, government and NGOs in this case assisted by former alumni of Kenshusei who have become entrepreneurs namely " Ikapeksi " as an NGO wheel that helped the former kenshusei who wanted to open a business field in Indonesia, became the most significant contributor to why the development of Kenshusi's self-employed business was slow.

  7. The absence of instructors to be a role model or at least to provide the right direction when they are still in Indonesia and after being in Japan, so that after returning to the country they can be success or at least can bring a good stock of science according to the field he/she wants.


Referring to the findings of the research and the results of the discussions that have been put forward into several conclusions, it can be given some recommendations which are suggestions for the parties whose main interests with the problem of ex-apprentices who have returned to the homeland, to be a thought to look for solution , so that future apprenticeship will be better.

  1. The Kenshusei apprenticeship process should be in the "initial process". Some interviews should be made easier and provide a way for the apprentice. Being asked for such questions, they expect "one hundred percent" to get the same kind of work they want.

  2. After passing the test and leaving the appointment, there should be a promise from the government to help the problems experienced by prospective traders namely: financial problems for prospective kenshusei who will leave for Japan and who have passed all the test stages and passed, but can not go to Japan for reasons "have no money for the initial preparation to make passports, and others in the form of credit that will be cut each month if they have received a salary. Or create a cooperative in each Sending Organization.

  3. Prior to leaving for Japan, they should first be given the socialization conducted by the Ministry of Manpower of the Central and regional by "hitting" all corners of the archipelago, so there is no reason people do not know the program, and also maximize the use of existing technology trends such as the use of social media.

  4. The instructor should be held to be a role model while still in Japan, so after returning to the homeland they can be a success or at least can bring a good stock of science and money to work so that he/she can make an independent business.

  5. Kenshusei should use the theory while in the superpower country like Japan, learn and seek networking from now so that later when returning to indinesia, they do not need to start a business from zero, but they are already in the process startng from being kenshusei.

  6. The government should in this case be able to negotiate with the Japanese Government, especially IM Japan in increasing the number of quota of Kenhusei who will go to Japan, more for SMK and all other levels. Because with their participation in apprenticeship, they do not only get knowledge but also business savings that will be useful for them when returning to Indonesia.

It is advisable that the cooperation between the Government, the Company, the NGOs and the SMEs, which are the "companion of the Kenhsusei" when they start to open a business, should be increased so that former apprentices become successful, so that former apprentices will succeed. Therefore, it is necessary to have cooperation between the company, the government and the NGOs in this case assisted by former alumni of Kenshusei who has been entrepreneurs that is "Ikapeksi" as the NGO wheel that helps the former kenshusei who want to open the business field in Indonesia.


  1. Pengukuran Konsep Amanah dalam Pendekatan Kualitatif dan Kuantitatif Agung IvanMuhammad, Husni Desma. Jurnal Psikologi.2017-apr. Google Scholar
  2. Narcissism in the Workplace DuBrin Andrew. .2012. Google Scholar
  4. Effects of Internship Satisfaction on the Pursuit of Employment in Sport Management Koo Gi-Yong, Diacin MichaelJ, Khojasteh Jam, Dixon AnthonyW. Sport Management Education Journal.2016-apr;:29-42. Google Scholar
  6. Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Manusia (Tinjauan Aspek Rekrutmen dan Seleksi) Nuryanta Nanang. el-Tarbawi.2008;:55-69. Google Scholar
  7. The Politics of Public Personnel Administration: Towards Theoretical Understanding Nalbandian John, Klingner Donald. Public Administration Review.1981-sep. Google Scholar
  9. Ekonomi Indonesia: Masalah dan Prospek 1989/1990 [The Indonesian Economy: Problems and Prospects, 1989/1990]. Edited by Moh. Arsyad Anwar, Sri-Edi Swasono and Iwan Jaya Azis. Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Indonesia, 1989. Pp. xiii, 482. Tables, Graphs. [In Indonesian.]Prospek Ekonomi Indonesia 1990–1991 dan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia [Prospects of the Indonesian Economy, 1990–1991, and Human Resource Development]. Edited by Moh. Arsyad Anwar and Iwan Jaya Azis. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Indonesia, 1990. Pp. xviii, 285. Tables, Diagrams, Notes, Bibliography. [In Indonesian.] Wie TheeKian. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies.1991-sep. Google Scholar
  10. Students’ Search Behaviors and Career Alignment for Internships Odio Michael. Journal of Applied Sport Management.2017;:22-38. Google Scholar
  11. PRINSIP SYARIAH DALAM MANAJEMEN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA (Studi atas Implementasi Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia UMKM di Kudus) Mustaqim Muhamad. JURNAL PENELITIAN.2016-dec. Google Scholar
  12. Mary Parker Follett: visionary leadership and strategic management McLarney C, Rhyno Shelley. Women in Management Review.1999-nov;:292-304. Google Scholar
  13. .2017. Google Scholar
  14. PRINSIP SYARIAH DALAM MANAJEMEN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA (Studi atas Implementasi Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia UMKM di Kudus) Mustaqim Muhamad. JURNAL PENELITIAN.2016-dec. Google Scholar
  15. Tonto\textquotesingles FriendTonto\textquotesingles FriendSilvermanR. E.Psychology (4th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982, 573 $\mathplus$ xxi pp.Tonto\textquotesingles FriendDavisS. F.Instructor\textquotesingles manual: Psychology (4th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982, 168 pp.Tonto\textquotesingles FriendSilvermanR. E.Test item file: Psychology (4th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982, 169 pp. (File includes 972 questions.)Tonto\textquotesingles FriendWinsten-VelenL.Study guide and workbook: Psychology (4th Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982, 315 pp. Teaching of Psychology.1983-oct;:189-190. Google Scholar
  16. Perancangan Program Day Care Berbasis Experiential Learning di Prodi Pendidikan Kesejahteraan Keluarga Mu’jizatin Nur, Jubaedah Yoyoh, Widiaty Isma. JKKP (Jurnal Kesejahteraan Keluarga dan Pendidikan).2017-oct. Google Scholar
  17. The Sources of Industrial Growth in Indonesia, 1985–95: An Input-Output Analysis Akita Takahiro, Hermawan Agus. Asean Economic Bulletin.2000-dec;:270-284. Google Scholar
  18. Benefits of a Summer Internship Davis TaylorM. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice.2010-oct;:181-182. Google Scholar
  19. CHAP. V Hamilton Alexander. A New Account of the East Indies.;:40-52. Google Scholar
  20. Studi Kelayakan Pengembangan Bisnis pada PT Dagang Jaya Jakarta Nurjanah Santi. The Winners.2013-mar. Google Scholar
  21. Kreativitas dan Inovasi Berpengaruh Terhadap Kewirausahaan Usaha Kecil Hadiyati Ernani. Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan.2011-sep. Google Scholar

Author's Affiliation

Copyrights & License

International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 2018.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Article Details

Issue: Vol. 6 No. 02 (2018)
Page No.: EM-2018-132-143
Section: Economics and Management

How to Cite

Suldina, F., Luddin, M. R., & Akbar, M. (2018). Productivity Entrepreneurship for Alumnus Apprenticenship Kenshusei (Study Phenomenology Kenshusei Im Japan). International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 6(02), EM-2018.

Download Citation

  • HTML Viewed - 118 Times
  • PDF Downloaded - 87 Times
  • XML Downloaded - 28 Times