Fourteen stem anatomical characters, beside twelve minerals; Na,Mg,Al,Si,P,S,Cl,K,Ca,Fe,Cu,Zn; and organic matters ;flavonoids,Kaempherol, quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-rutinoside; were identified in six Salsola species; S.inermis, S.kali, S.longifolia,S tetragona.,S. tetrandra and S.volkensii grown in the Mediterranean coastal strip from Alexandria to El-Dabaa district in Egypt, in order to better understanding of the relations between the studied species and elucidate the arguments about their taxonomic position. The work based on light microscope for anatomical investigations, X-ray analyses in the leaves for minerals compositions and paper chromatography in all plant parts for chemical organic constituents. The anatomical results obtained showed that S. kali and S. innermis are closely related and separated from the rest of the studied species, while S.tetrandra and S.volkensii are related as well and meanwhile in relation with the other two species;S.tetragona and S.longifolia .These characters revealed that the genus exhibit abnormal secondary growth with variations within the studied species.. The mineral contents in the leaves of these species differs between the taxa. The maximum records of Mg, Al. Si, P, Ca, and Fe were found in S. kali While the maximum records in Na and K were found in S.inermis. Flavenoids, Kaempherol, quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-rutinoside identified. No flavone aglycons and glycosides or C-glycosides were detected. Hypogallic acid, gallic acid, phloroglucinol, gentisic acid, protocatchuic acid and -(-)epicatchin have been also detected. The biochemical data indicate that Salsola kali is highly different and support its anatomical aspects. Mineral and organic compounds analyses revealed that the studied species are under stress and their variations cannot be used in the taxonomy of the group. All the obtained results indicate that S.kali has its own characters which support its separation in a separate section as indicated by previous authors
The Chenopodiaceaes. of about122 genera and about 1500 species (Cronquist 1981; Shmida, 1985; Pratov 1986; Thorne 1992; Kühn et al., 1993) is one of the core centrospermous families. It has great number of halophytes and xerohalophytes plants (Breckle 1986; Aronson, 1989; Akhani and Ghorbanli, 1993; Le Houerou, 1993).Genus Salsola L. is one of the halophyte plants belong to tribe Salsoleae. The genus Salsola L. s.l. includes the segregation genera Caroxylon Thunberg, Clinacoptera Botschantsev, Hypocyclix Woloszezak = Darniella Maire, Neocaspia Tzvelev, Nitrosalsola Tzvelev, and Xylosalsola Tzvelev, comprises 130-150 species, which are especially numerous in the arid and coastal zones of Eurasia, including Central Asia, the Middle East and the Mediterranean region (Mosyakin, 1996). The genus is a cosmopolitan group of plants which distributed and naturalized all over the world. Species belong to this genus found in sea beaches, in grassland, wastelands, roadsides and desert communities (Krzaczek et al., 2009). The detailed revision of most species groups of the genus Salsolas.s. carried out by (Botschantsev, 1989). Based on the earlier works of (Fenzl, 1851, Ulbrich, 1934 and Iljin, 1936), as well as on morphological features of vegetative organs (Botschantzev and Akhani, 1989) recognized six systematic sections of Salsola; Section Caroxylon (Thunb.) (Fenzl), Section Malpigila Botsch., Section Cardiandra Aellen, Section Belanthera Iljin, Section Coccosalsola, sub. Arbuscula (Fenzl) and Section Salsola, sub. Kali (Ulbrich). The classification of genus Salsolas.s. worked by (Botschantsev and Akhani, 1989) is still widely accepted and in the present study .
Anatomical and chemical works on the genus are rare; from them are those of Bisalputra (1962) on the primary vascular system and nodal anatomy of 32 species of the family Chenopodiaoeae. His results showed that the family has a unilacunar node, and the structure of the primary vascular system is classified into three types by reference to the number of leaf traces at a node and their relationships with each other or with cauline bundles within the axis. The Kochia-Bassia type, which is characteristic of Kochia, Bassia, Malacocera, Threllceldia, Babbagia, Enchylaena, Suaeda, and Salsola, is the most primitive and these genera are considered to be closely related. While P’yankov et al. (1997) made a comparative anatomical and biochemical analysis in Salsola species with and without a Kranz type leaf anatomy they studied the leaf anatomy by light and electron microscopy.Bercu and Bavaru (2004) studied the anatomical aspects of Salsola kali subsp. Ruthenica (Chenopodiaceae) and they comprised an investigation of the root, stem and leaf anatomy of Salsola kali subsp. Ruthenica(Chenopodiaceae) from the Dobroudzha region (Romania). Afterward Idzikowska (2005) examined the morphology and anatomy of generative organs of S.kali Ssp. Ruthenica using both light and Scanning Electron microscopy. The whole flower, fruit and their parts were observed in different developmental stages. From chemo- taxonomic investigations are those done by Turki (1999), Oeuslati et al. (2006), Krzaczek et al. (2009), Jafari et al. (2011) and El sharabasy and Hosny (2013). All these works dealt with few analyses of certain components only. For those both anatomical and chemical investigations within some of the wildly grown Salsola species grown in the western coastal strip of Egypt.
Materials and Methods
Field trips have been carried throughout three years (2012-2014) to the Mediterranean coastal strip, from Alexandria to Al-Dabaa, in Egypt by Shiha and Abdel-maged. Six species of genus Salsola were collected; Salsola inermis Forssk., S.kali L., S.longifolia Forssk., S.tetragona Delile, Descr., S.tetrandra Forssk. and S.volkensii Schweinf. & Asch. (Table 1). The collected specimens were identified by the aid of student's flora of Egypt (Täckholm, 1974 and Boulos ,1999). The forth node from a well represented individuals has been chosen for anatomical investigations. Anatomy was done on the basis of customary method of Johansen (1940). For mineral analyses, five leaves from each species were dried and grounded exposed to X-ray analyses in the scanning electron microscopy unit in Alexandria University, Egypt, each separately, to estimate the mineral contents in each leaf. The results are expressed as minimum, maximum and the mean of the five readings.
Chemical analyses has done by taken fixed weight of fresh materials; about 400 – 600 gm.; dried and powdered, defatted with ethyl acetate for 40 h, extracted with 100 ml methanol, and then concentrated by evaporation (Markham,1982). Hot distilled water (50 ml) was added to the extract and left over night to remove chlorophyll, lipids and waxes. The aqueous/methanolic filtered and the filtrate divided into two equal volumes (Markham and Mabry, 1975). One part of the aqueous/methanolic samples was concentrated and applied to a polyamide column with increasing polarity by using ascending sequencing concentrations; (70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, till absolute alchol.). Further purification of the flavonoids was done by preparative thin layer chromatography. The other volume was evaporated to dryness then subjected to continuous ether extraction. It was then shacked several times with water. The ethereal layer contained the free aglycone. The phenolic acids and – (-) epicatechin were separated from the aqueous layer by preparative paper chromatography. All experiments were performed at least in triplicate.
Identification of phenolic compounds by both Column chromatography (CC) and Paper chromatography (PC), phenolic acids and flavonoids compounds according to Harborne (1973 and 1984), Sugar moieties of flavonoids according to Lewis and Smith (1967). UV- Spectroscopic analysis of flavonoidsdiagnosis according to Mabry et al. (1970) by using FT.IR Tensor 37.
Table 1 Collection data from the Mediterranean coastal strip in Egypt, North Africa
TOC \h \z \c "Table" Table 1 Collection data from the Mediterranean coastal strip in Egypt, North Africa 10
14 stem anatomical characters were investigated in the studied taxa as shown in table (2) and plate 1. The stem outline was irregular circle or circle except in S. longifolia, it was circular with four protrusions and two groves as shown in plate 1, Fig.5. Ribbed stem found in S.kali only, while undulate surface stem found in S.inermis and the rest of the taxa has straight stem surface. The stem enriched with either unicellullar , multicellular hairs, or even both while in S. longifolia has glabrous stem. S. tetragona has unicellular and vesicular hairs (Plate 2, Fig. 9). The epidermal cells are radial except in S. tetrandra and S.volkensii they are tangential. The cortex tissue consists of one to six rows continuous or discontinuous, angular collenchymas, except S.tetragona (Table 2, Plate 1 & 2). Elongated palisade chlorenchyma layer followed by rounded chlorenchyma layer present in S.kali only, while lignified parenchyma found in S.tetragona. Paranchyma cells with druses ca-oxalate crystals in S.kali, S.tetragona and S.tetrandra, the rest of the studied taxa lack these crystals. The vascular bundles; from four to eighteen, exhibit anomalous secondary growth, in which the cambium divides giving secondary xylem introrse and fibers extrorse, then continued division giving secondary xylem entrorse and secondary phloem extrorse. The cambium divides giving 2ry phloem to both the outside and inside, then starts to give 2ry xylem to the inside and return again giving 2ry phloem to the inside. The net result we found complete 2ry bundles embedded in the 2ry xylem or patches of secondary phloem in between the secondary xylem and the fibers (Plate 1 and 2).
Extraction of the aerial parts of Salsola species under investigation, according to their chemical properties were classified as flavonolaglycones and their O-glycosides. The distribution pattern of the identified flavonoids and phenolic compounds in the studied species is presented in table (3) and their chemical properties are shown in tables (4,5,6).
It could be seen that the flavonolaglycone (quercetin) and it's O-glycosides; quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-rutinoside were the prevailing flavonoids. Quercitin-3-rutinoside was the most dominant flavonol glycoside in Salsola species under investigation. The flavonolaglycone kaempherol was identified while the kaempherol glycosides were not detected.
Flavone aglycons and their O-glycosides could not be detected in the studied species. Flavone, unlike flavonol occurs remarkably with sugar bound by a carbon-carbon to the aromating nucleus. Such glycosyl flavone was not found. It could be seen that the aerial parts of Salsolas pecies under investigation contain hypogallic acid (2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid),gallic acid (3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid), phloroglucinol(1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene),gentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid)and protocatchuic acid (3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid). Hypogallic acid was the most frequently detected and gallic acid was found only in Salsola kali as shown by the IR spectrum(Tab.5, Figs.1,2,3,4,5 & 6).
-(-)Epicatchin which is the condensed tannins precursor was found in the most of the Salsola species under investigation whereas gallic acid the precursor of hydrolysable tannins was only found in Salsola kali. (Tab.5 , Fig.6).Hypogallic acid, gallic acid, phloroglucinol, gentisic acid, protocatchuic acid and -(-)epicatchin were detected for the first time in Salsola species.
The maximum records of Mg, Al. Si, P, Ca, and Fe were found in S.kali (1.7%, 3.45%, 9.25%, 5.25%, 34.1% and 2.95% respectively). While the maximum records in Na and K were found in S.inermis (7.7% and 39.6%). The minimum record in Na was in S. longifolia (2.3%)and it has the maximum records in Cu and Zn (3.75% and 3.35%). S.tetragona has minimum records of Mg, Si, Cl, Cu and Zn (0.6%, 0.3%, 20.55%, 1.65 % and 0.8%), while it has the maximum record of S (27.7%). S.tetrandra has the minimum record of S (2.6%) and maximum record of Cl (70.05%). S.volkensii has minimum amounts of Al (1%) and P (0.3%). The x-ray analyses indicate that S. kali is the only species that contain Fe in their leaves (Fig. 7).
These records express the percentage of that element according to the total amounts of minerals present in that species, i.e. the instrument suppose that the summation of all the mineral amounts represent 100 and each element represent how much from the 100.
Anatomical characters have been employed for systematic purposes for over a hundred years Radford et al. (1974). Davis and Heywood (1973) stated that anatomical characters play an increasingly important role in the formation of natural or phonetic groups. Solereder (1899), Wilson (1924) and all anatomical studies within both Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae afterward concluded that there were no definite anatomical characters could be used to differentiate between the two families. The attention which has been focused on these two families is centered upon the peculiar secondary growth. The anatomy of the genus Salsola was studied by many authors, but all of these studies were in relation to C3-C4 Kranz anatomy in the leaves of the genus and the related genera. Stem anatomy of the genus was very rare and if found was in Salsola kali only. This is due to the difficulty in sectioning in the woody, hard stem and the abnormal secondary growth happened in many members of the Chenopodiaceae. The results showed great variations within the studied species, the anatomical features of S.kali are completely different than the other five species. S.kali has chlorenchyma cells in between the elevated striations which supported by layers of collenchymas cells. These characters coordinate with Grigore et al. (2014) who stated that the stem in cross section was ribbed containing collenchyma cells alternated with palisade tissue and short cell chlorenchyma. These characters are not common within the rest of the species, as S.longifolia, S.tetragona, S.tetrandra, S. volkensii and S.inermis have either irregular or flattened parenchyma in the cortex, no chlorenchyma cells found at all. The presence of chlorenchyma cells (palisade cells) in the cortex is an important character in the division of the genus as Rilke (1999 a) indicated and according to it the genus Salsola has divided into two sections; sect. Kali and sect. Salsola. The secondary growth is abnormal in cambium activity. In all the studied taxa anomalous secondary growth recorded in which the cambium divides giving 2ry phloem to both the outside and inside, then starts to give 2ry xylem to the inside and return again giving 2ry phloem to the inside. The net result we found complete 2ry bundles embedded in the 2ry xylem fibers. These peculiar secondary growths were observed by Solereder (1899) and Wilson (1924) and they described the primary vascular bundles of the Chenopod stem by being not circularly arranged and found in the medulla of the stem separated by several or many cell layers from the secondary growth. This is not found in this study as all the studied species are circularly arranged.
Malih (2010) studied the stem anatomy of four Salsola species, his results indicate to the importance of epidermal cell thickness, cuticles, chlorenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma and also xylem row length in the separation of the studied species. From this work we can conclude that the most important anatomical characters in species circumscription are; the presence of chlorenchyma cells in the cortex (palisade cells), number of collenchyma layers and the type of secondary growth. The study of the anatomical characters in the stem, support the division of the Salsola species into two sectionsas mentioned by Mosyakin (1996) and Rilke (1999a, b). In this investigation the type of secondary growth considered from the important characters in the circumscription of the species, as S.volkensii is completely different than the rest of the studied species. This conclusion supports the previous results obtained by Carolin et al. (1975) who found two anatomical types in the leaves of Salsola. Salsoloid type leaves are characterized by two continuous layers of chlorenchymatous cells (a layer of palisade mesophyll cells and an inner layer of very distinctive Kranz type bundle cells) on the periphery and water-storage parenchyma in the center. The main vascular bundle occupies the central position in the leaf, and only the small, peripheral vascular bundles are in contact with the chlorenchyma. The second type is the Sympegmoid type leaves are characterized by having two or three layers of palisade cells and a discontinuous layer of indistinctive bundle sheath cells (typically non-Kranz) around water-storage tissue.
The x-ray analyses indicate that all the studied species has no Fe at all, except S. kali. This data can aid in the conclusion of the identity in all the studied tools to separate S.kali in a separate section as indicated by Rilke (1999a). It is perhaps interesting to see to which degree major taxa are characterized by certain substances and to which degree chemical data have influenced the classification of major taxa of plants. Meanwhile, Kubitzki (1984) pointed to the importance of the accumulation of plant substances in taxonomic studies as secondary metabolites considered defense substances against herbivores. The results of the study showed differences in both mineral and organic contents can be attributed to the ecologically stress present in the growing habitats of these species.
Extraction of the aerial parts of Salsola species under investigation, according to their chemical properties were classified as flavonol aglycones and their O-glycosides.
It could be seen that the flavonol aglycone (quercetin) and it's O-glycosides; quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-rutinoside were the prevailing flavonoids. Quercitin-3-rutinoside was the most dominant flavonol glycoside in Salsola species under investigation. The flavonol aglycone kaempherol was identified while the kaempherol glycosides were not detected. The presence of isorhamnetin-3-glucoside, 3-rutinoside, rhamnetin identified in Salsola kali (Thomas et al.,1985; Hegnauer,1989) was not confirmed in this investigation while the presence of quercitin, kaempherol, has been established (Tab.3). Quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-rutinoside were recorded for the first time in Salsola species. As the genus Salsola exhibits a large diversity in habitat and morphology, it could be also seen that there is a variety in the phenolic constituents. The biochemical data indicate that Salsola kali is highly different and support its morphological and anatomical aspects.
The presence of isorhamnetin-3-glucoside, 3-rutinoside, rhamnetin identified in Salsola kali by Thomas et al. (1985) and Hegnauer (1989) not confirmed in this investigation while the presence of quercitin, kaempherol, has been established. Quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-rutinoside were recorded for the first time in Salsola species. Quercetin and its 3-rutinoside (rutin) were the most widely spread among the species studied.
It could be seen that the aerial parts of Salsola species under investigation contain hypogallic acid (2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid),gallic acid (3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid), phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene), gentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) and protocatchuic acid (3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid). Hypogallic acid was the most frequently detected and gallic acid was found only in Salsola kali. Gallic acid the precursor of hydrolysable tannins was only found in Salsola kali. Hypogallic acid, gallic acid, phloroglucinol, gentisic acid, protocatchuic acid were also detected.
-(-)Epicatchin which is the condensed tannins precursor was found in the most of the Salsola species under investigation it is detected for the first time in Salsola species. It was characterized by its chromatographic data and IR-spectral analysis.
As the genus Salsola exhibits a large diversity in habitat and morphology, it could be also seen that there is a variety in the phenolic constituents. The biochemical data indicate that Salsola kali is highly different and support its morphological and anatomical aspects. Although the number of species involved in this study is rather limited, yet the results obtained give an indication to the possibility of deducing a correlation between the presence or absence of certain flavonoid compounds and the different groups of species in the genus. This in itself may have significance in the hierarchical arrangement of the species in the species in the genus Salsola. The data obtained, so far, show that all the glycosidic patterns are flavonol-O-glycosides of quercetin. The different phenolic patterns are related to their occurrence to the family chenopodiaceae.
From this study we conclude that the studied species can be described as a typical Chenopoid genus. Anatomical characters revealed that the genus exhibit abnormal secondary growth with great variations within the studied species. This study indicates that S.kali has its own characters which support its separation in a separate section as indicated by previous authors. Mineral and organic compounds analyses revealed that the studied species are under stress and their variations cannot be used in the taxonomy of the group.
Table 2 Stem anatomical characters investigated within the studied Salsola Sp.
|Taxa→ Characters↓||S.inermis||S.kali||S. longifolia||S. tetragona||S. tetrandra||S. volkensii|
|S T E M||outline||Irregular Circle||Irregular Circle||Circular with 4 protrusion||Circular||Circular||Circular|
|Hair type||Unicellular &multicellular||Unicellular||-----||Unicellular & Vesicular||Unicellular||multicellular|
|Shape of epidermal cells||Radial||Radial||Radial||Radial||Tangential||Tangential|
|Collenchyma cells (angular)||Present||Present||Present||Absent||Present||Present|
|State of collenchyma cells||Continuous||Discont.||Continuous||---------||Continuous||Continuous|
|Number of collenchyma||1||6||6||--------||1||1|
|Lignified cortical parenchyma||Abscent||Abscent||Abscent||Present||Abscent||Abscent|
|Crystals in cortical parenchyma||Abscent||Present||Abscent||Present||Present||Abscent|
|Arrangement of vascular bundles||Symmetric||Asym.||Asym.||Symmetric||Asym.||Asym.|
|No. of vascular bundles||14-18||12||8||4-6||8||5|
|Lignified pith parenchym||Present||Absent||Present||Absent||Absent||Absent|
|Crystals in pith parenchyma||Absent||Absent||Absent||Absent||Absent||Present|
Table 3 Distribution of flavonoids and Phenol compounds in Salsola species under investigation.
Key to flavenoids: Q=Quercetin; K=Kempherol; Q-3-GLU=Quercetin-3-glucoside; Q-3-RH=Quercetin-3-rhamnoside; R=Rutin.
Key to phenol componds: H.Ga.=hypogallic acid; Ga.=gallic acid; Ph.=Phloglucin; -(-)Epi.=Epicatchin; Ge=Gentisic acid; proto.=protocatchuic acid.
Table 4 Rf values of flavonoids from Salsola species under investigation.
|Solvent systems PC TLC||Flavonids|
|R f (X100)|
PC=Paper chromatography; TLC=Thin layer chromatography; Q=Quercetin; K=Kempherol; Q-3-GLU=Quercetin-3-glucoside; Q-3-RH=Quercetin-3-rhamnoside; R=Rutin. (BPF=Benzene-Pyridin-Formic acid). BAW=Butanol-Acetic acid-Water 415 ;HOAc=Acetic acid (15%).
Table 5 Absorption spectra and characterization of flavonoids isolated from Salsola species under investigation.
|Absorption spectra (nm) after addition of||Flavonoids|
|NaOAc/H 3 BO 3||NaOAc||AlCl 3 /HCl||AlCl 3||NaOMe||MeOH|
|391.227.262||402.226.274||355.402 224.266||364.400 226.267||230.415 225.270||350.372 250.276||Quercitin-3-rutinoside(Rrtin)|
Key: MeOH= Methanol; NaOMe= Sodium methoxide; AlCl3= Aluminium chloride; HCl= Hydrochloric acid; NaOAc= Sodium acetate; H3BO3=Boric acid.
|Solvent systems PC||phenolic acids|
|Rf ( X100 )|
|18||Sugar moieties Glucose|
Rf values of phenolic acids isolated from Salsola species under investigation and sugar moieties.
Key: PC=Paper chromatography; BAW=Butanol-Acetic acid-Water; HOAc=Acetic acid (15%).
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