The research aims to describe and test the effectiveness of transactional analysis counseling to increase students self-esteem. The subjects of this studi at Junior High School at Airmadidi, North Minahasa Regency,North Sulawesi-Indonesia. A low self-esteem based measurement instruments on self-esteem. Numerical data were analyzed using two independent-sample test Mann Whitney-U test. While verbal data using method of conversation analysis through recording counseling (verbatim). The result of analysis from the experimental group shows that transactional counseling can to increase to self-esteem students of junior high school. Research recommendations are: (1) school counselors need to receive transactional counseling counseling training especially to improve the low self-esteem of learners, (2) Principals, it is advisable to provide adequate counseling services phenomenon in schools, (3) Transactional analysis can be used to help improve other psychological aspects such as self-eficacy. Transactional analysis counseling proved effective enough to improve self-esteem students with low self-esteem. Transactional analysis counseling is effective enough to improve self-esteem in all three aspects striving, self-evaluation, and learning. Specifically, the aspect of self-evaluation has the ability to increase self-esteem.
In one's individual life, the term self-esteem has a very important role. Self-esteem is interpreted as a person's opinion of himself which is realistic and appreciative. Realistic means that the individual can honestly and accurately realize the advantages and disadvantages that exist in him. While appreciative is the ability of individuals through a good feeling in looking at others (Schiraldi, 2007).
Self-esteem is formed through the interaction of individuals with the environment. Among other things, the family environment. If the environment provides something pleasant, then self-esteem will be positive, but if the environment is not fun then self-esteem will become negative. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and is significantly associated with lifelong well-being. Universal human behavior wants to maintain and enhance self-esteem because as a basic need (Greenberg, 2008). What is chosen to do and how they do it may depend on self-esteem. Low self-esteem has been shown to be associated with many negative phenomena, including high rates of teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, alcoholism, violence, depression, social anxiety, and suicide. Factors such as family, gender, race, economic level, sexual orientation, seem to affect the level of self-esteem (Twenge & Campbell, 2002).
There are two categories of self-esteem, self-esteem positive (high self-esteem) and self-esteem negative (low self esteem). Positive self-esteem usually manifests when an individual gets an award, wins in a race, can solve complicated problems, possess skills and skills to be proud of. In essence, the individual will feel has a self-esteem when getting recognition from the social environment. Negative self-esteem usually arises when individuals are humiliated and humiliated, work that is not appreciated by others, suffers from bankruptcy, is not recognized, excommunicated and socially rejected, physically disabled, fails in achievement, and so on. In general, Self-esteem is positively beneficial because it refers to self-evaluation, whereas negative Self-esteem creates negative feelings that are self-defeating.
Positive self-esteem plays an important role in the lives of individuals. But what needs to be observed is a negative self-esteem (low self-esteem), because it will cause anxiety and discomfort. Fuller in his research mentions some of the consequences of low self esteem, namely: the emergence of anxiety, easy stress, feeling empty and lonely, increasing the risk of depression, experiencing problems in relationship, sexual dysfunction. Herer & Holzapfel (1993), illustrates the effects of negative self-esteem that can undermine academic and career achievement, inadequacy, increase the risk of drug and alcohol abuse.
Individuals who have a negative self-esteem image often feel that they are incompetent, not beautiful / handsome and meaningless, have the view that they are unworthy to be loved, not smart, unable to move on, feeling depressed and helpless, always thinking of failure before try, easy to despair and give up. The results of Roese and Pennington (2002) concluded that individuals who have negative self-esteem often accept discriminatory attitudes from those around them. Instead the individual who has a positive self-esteem image, is believed to have a happier life, an interesting personality, feel more popular and proud of all the achievements in his life. A high self-esteem is part of a healthy ego. Master and Johnson (Ismail, 2005) says self-esteem affects a person's attitude toward his or her status as a teenager. A teenager who has a positive self-esteem, then he will not be carried away by the temptations offered by the environment and can express and take what attitude he really wants to do, which will ultimately avoid negative behaviors.
Self-esteem is also closely related to personality factors and psychological factors in drug abuse (Shield, 1976, Jessor and Jessor, 1977; Wienfield, et al., 1989; Brook and Brook, 1990; Hawaii 1991). These personality factors can be distinguished into intrapersonal, interpersonal and cognitive aspects (Olson, et al, in Brown & Lent, 1992). The intrapersonal aspects identified to play an important role in drug abuse in adolescents are low adolescent self-esteem (Gorsuch and Butter, 1976; Sield, 1976). The results show that adolescents with low self-esteem feel themselves alienated, depressed and lack the courage to do something. They tend to be more anxious, easily depressed, pessimistic about their future and easily fail. Furthermore, adolescents with these characteristics easily get the influence of the environment to consume drugs. Sigal and Gould (in Brehm and Kassin, 1990) describe individuals who have positive self-esteem will always be motivated to behave, including not involving themselves in drug abuse because they understand the negative effects of the substance that can damage their lives. Self-esteem also influences learning motivation for learners. According to research conducted by Sulistyowati (2008), self-esteem is an aspect of personality that can basically develop. Lack of self-esteem in learners can lead to various problems, both in the field of academic, sports and social appearance. It also can cause interference in the process of thinking in the concentration of learning, and interact with others, especially those who still follow the education so that it affects the motivation to learn.
The things that are disclosed above, are currently mostly found in schools both at basic, intermediate and even in college. In SMPN Airmadidi, referring to the results of interviews with counseling teachers, it was found that students' self-esteem was low (negative), as illustrated by the gaps among students for their self-confidence. Students with high self-esteem often become brave to harass their low self-esteem friends, thus making them feel powerful in school and making low self-esteem students discriminated against by their circumstances. Some of the causes of such discrimination, such as the origin of residence, the socio-economic conditions of the family, and physical deficiencies.
From some previous research results, explain that the importance of handling or assistance in students who have self-esteem negative. So that required attention and special handling of teaching staff, as well as counselor. The existing handling must be able to neutralize the causes of negative self-esteem and develop it into a positive self-esteem. One effort that can be done is by counseling transactional analysis, as one of psychotherapy techniques in counseling. Transactional analysis is a psychotherapy approach that emphasizes interactional relationships. Transactional analysis can be used in individual counseling, but preferably for group counseling. Based on the description and explanation above, The purpose of this research is to test the effectiveness of transactional counseling counseling to improve student self-esteem in students class VII SMPN (State Junior High School) Airmadidi, North Minahasa Regency North Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Concept of Self-Esteem
Maslow (1987) argues that humans are motivated to meet every hierarchy of needs. Self-esteem needs arise after the fulfillment of social needs, and the need for self-esteem, before the needs of self-actualization. This view implies that self-esteem deserves a necessity that must be fought for its fulfillment through social interaction before stepping on the fulfillment of subsequent needs.
Reasoner (2005) reveals that self-esteem can be defined as "the experience to be able to overcome the obstacles in life and to become worthy of happiness". Reasoner also notes that the feasibility is a psychological aspect to obtain self-esteem, while the competence, or challenge in a meeting, as a sociological aspect. This view affirms the acquisition of self-esteem through the ability to see and learn from experience, the striving of overcoming obstacles to achieving success. From the view of Maslow (1987), Adler (1964a), Reasoner (2005) and Mosak (2005) about self-esteem, it can be concluded that self-esteem consists of several, namely: self-evaluation, struggle to overcome challenges and ability to learn from experience.
Transaction analysis counseling in self-esteem improvement
Transaction analysis counseling is based on the Berne (1961) concept of theory relevant to individual and social life, taking into account the appropriate concept of ego state parent (ego state adult and ego state child). Weak use of thinking that departs from facts leads to problematic life positions that I`m not okey - you are not okey; I`m not okey - you are okey; and you are not okey - I`m okey. The three life positions need to get help to bring out the self-view I`m okey - you are okey.
In some cases, the counselee needs a process that makes it possible to realize that his or her view of yourself is wrong. The incorrect view and / or decision of the self needs to be rejected and resolved with the correct decision in accordance with the results of the effort. The observations of success are built on to feel what a successful person feels by saying to himself: if I can do what will make me successful, then I will also be happy to be rewarded. A business and a result of effort will be able to change a false initial decision. Therefore the counselee needs to be given a stroke for he can use the adult state appropriately, and not often use the time to play. Counseling, self-criticism appropriately (on the basis of consideration) is also necessary in order to gain success.
This counseling also illustrates life as a game, which will end with the term game over. Game over shows a defeat in a match. This defeat points to a step in a place that can not progress. Similarly, what is associated with the message either from within or from outside or others must be responded according to the contents of the message. If the message received is responded inappropriately then it can lead to defeat or game over.Failure shows there are things that need to be learned, evaluated to be changed and / or updated to be the appropriate response to success. Every individual does not want to fail but instead all expect a success. Success as a hope is a self-message that must be responded appropriately by choosing the state used (ego parent, adult and child). If the message is responded with inappropriate action, then it can be a game over which resulted in failure.Wilbum (2005) explains that children who do not receive encouragement and support, in behaving compensate themselves for improper or inappropriate selection of goals, which results in their inadequacy become excessive, desperate to cause depression.
The view emphasizes that the stroke of the teacher, the counselor for the learners is very necessary for the learners. So the counselor really needs to teach the use of each ego state appropriately while providing the necessary strokes. the proper use of the ego state and the appropriate stroke will allow the counselee to be aware of what he must do to achieve his goals and be increasingly compelled to strive for success.Berne's views mentioned above suggest that in addition to education in the family environment in which individuals are raised, also in transactional analysis counseling the social interest is very useful in: (1) the formation and development of character, (2) develop social awareness and cooperative life to give each other strokes, advice appropriately for the good of others (3) include giving each other messages to be responded in behavior as striving to find success, mutually reinforcing, respecting, or contributing each other, for personal and collective purposes Minahasa: the tou timou, tu mou tou means human life to revive another human).
Based on a research framework based on theoretical, phenomenal and empirical studies, the hypothesis of this study is as follows: there is a difference in increasing effective transactional counseling counseling to improve student self-esteem.
This research uses quantitative approach with pure experimental research design and research design from Fraenkel & Wallen (2006). The design form used in this research is the randomized pre test post test design with control group. The design of the study was selected with the consideration that: (1) the design of this study as an appropriate design for experimental research including experiments in education and psychology; (2) the design is appropriate to test the hypothesis and can provide adequate control so that the variables can be judged appropriately.
|Group||Random||Pre test||Treatment||Post test|
Experimental design with pre-test-post test design with control group
The population in this study were all students in SMPN Airmadidi North Minahasa District of North Sulawesi Province, with the sample is the students in class VII which amounted to 39 students.
Variable and Operational Definition
Variables to be studied in this study consisted of two types of variables, namely:
The independent variable is Transactional Analysis Counseling, defined as the overall interventions that include:
Initiation stage, which includes: Communicating the intent and purpose of counseling of transactional analysis, experience or failure in each member's life that makes self-esteem low, changes to be achieved through counseling; and Agree on changes to be made by all members through transactional counseling activities.
Stage of work, which includes: Analysis of the ego structure by looking back at the verbal and non-verbal behaviors used, observing the attitudes of each person when mixing with others, recalling the condition of self as a child, and checking self-esteem that causes low self-esteem ; Script analysis to help group members become aware of the interaction process since childhood and the success standards that have been planted in life; Transactional analysis to analyze how members respond to the ego-state of others, or vice versa; and Game analysis is performed as a role-changing medium that will be played by group members in transactional situations.
Final Stages, which include: Group members (counselees) realize action plans, and decisions to achieve expected behavioral changes.
The dependent variable, Self Esteem, is defined as the individual's ability to evaluate and judge himself, his life and others that leads to the formation of a belief that gives rise to a sense of worth and worthiness. The self-esteem aspect consists of three aspects: (a) striving, (b) self-evaluation, (c) and learning from experience.
From the type of data required, this study develops on a self-esteem scale, which takes a self-esteem picture before and after the counseling process through a transactional analysis approach.
The student self-esteem instrument is developed from the operational definition of the variable. This instrument contains statements about self-esteem that refer to three aspects, namely: (a) striving, (b) self-evaluation, (c) and learning from experience.
The validity test indicates the extent to which the gauges measure what is measured. Using product moment correlation formula, with the help of SPSS software application program 16. Criteria valid when value rhitung> rtabel or significance value correlation result
Result and discussion
Implementation of the research through the process of Counseling Transactional Analysis (KAT) in the group to improve self-esteem junior high school students. Each counseling process is conducted for ten sessions.
Problem of BehaviorLife posision I`m not okey yuo are not okey (Problem:low self-esteem)Problem of BehaviorLife posision I`m not okey yuo are not okey (Problem:low self-esteem)Transacsional Analysis counseling (for process Redecisional )Transacsional Analysis counseling (for process Redecisional )Life posision I`m okey you are okey: life Success and meaning full. Self-esteem layak (high self-esteem)Life posision I`m okey you are okey: life Success and meaning full. Self-esteem layak (high self-esteem)
The counsel strives ... success.Learning a healthy mindset, "returning patterns of expectation" aspects, fundamental keys (the process of learning about and functioning the personality structure (ego parent, adult, child) appropriately. Construction Process:• Relationships -Administration, acceptance -Empathy• Stroke: Encourage, Encourage, Reward, Promote, Encourage, Encourage, Enhance, Awaken.Self-disclosure, self-evaluation with reference to the use of parent ego, adult and child, to build self-esteem.Meaning of life, Build the meaning of life, choosing the right goals and Planning life - response to the message for success.The counselor helps the counselee with a positive stroke process to:• Support the autonomy of the counselee• More self-defeating behaviors for successful.The counsel strives ... success.Learning a healthy mindset, "returning patterns of expectation" aspects, fundamental keys (the process of learning about and functioning the personality structure (ego parent, adult, child) appropriately. Construction Process:• Relationships -Administration, acceptance -Empathy• Stroke: Encourage, Encourage, Reward, Promote, Encourage, Encourage, Enhance, Awaken.Self-disclosure, self-evaluation with reference to the use of parent ego, adult and child, to build self-esteem.Meaning of life, Build the meaning of life, choosing the right goals and Planning life - response to the message for success.The counselor helps the counselee with a positive stroke process to:• Support the autonomy of the counselee• More self-defeating behaviors for successful.The troumatist experience - despair - brings low self-esteemStriving less – unsuccessfulSelf-evaluation is lowAbility to learn from less experienceManifest the use of ego parent, adult, chil wronglyLife posision I’m notOkey- you are not okeyThe troumatist experience - despair - brings low self-esteemStriving less – unsuccessfulSelf-evaluation is lowAbility to learn from less experienceManifest the use of ego parent, adult, chil wronglyLife posision I’m notOkey- you are not okeyChange the verdict(Redecision)I am okey- you are okey.Responding messages exactly (complementer)Self-esteem feasible:1. Striving to succeed2. self-evaluation is increasing3. Have the ability to learn from experience is increasing.Change the verdict(Redecision)I am okey- you are okey.Responding messages exactly (complementer)Self-esteem feasible:1. Striving to succeed2. self-evaluation is increasing3. Have the ability to learn from experience is increasing.
Result of Statistic Analysis
|Test of Statistic||Pre-test||Post-test||Difference Pretest and Posttet|
Summary of pretest
|Test of Statistic||Pretest||Posttest||Difference Pretest and Posttet|
In table 2 shows that the average pretest result in the experimental class is 4375 A minimum score of 30 is obtained and an increase in the average of the experimental class's posttest results to 7825 with a minimum score of 65 Then in Table 3, it shows that the average pretest result in the control class is 455 A minimum score of 60 is obtained and there is an increase in the mean posttest result of control class to 75 with a minimum score of 65 After the normality and homogeneity test of variance are met, the T-test statistic may be continued Based on the criteria of hypothesis testing is reject if static test-t, on the real level obtained tcount = 240645, while ttable = 202107 Thus, it is concluded that tcount> ttable This means statistically, H0 is rejected, and H1 is accepted ie: μ 1 > μ 2 This means that: average results indicate differences in improving student self-esteem by treatment through transactional analysis counseling at SMPN (State Junior High School) Airmadidi North Minahasa District of North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia
Transactional Analysis Counseling (KAT), which is counseling used in the experimental group based on the results of research turned out to further improve Self-Esteem. The use of short time in the counseling process turned out to have an effect of self-esteem change. Thus KAT can be an alternative counseling, especially in improving Self-Esteem.
The effectiveness of the Transactional Analysis Counseling (KAT) can be the basis for expanding its use in dealing with various aspects of undeveloped psychological aspects, as well as to better understand the psychological meaning and well-being of adolescents (counselors in junior high school age), so counseling as an educational implication can be done to help adolescents developing holistically on their body, mind, and soul in exploring into the adult world. It concerns self-esteem, self-acceptance, the importance of life meaning and commitment to personal life satisfaction and psychological health. However, the expansion of the use of the results of this study should be balanced with in-depth research so that it is more effective. Implementation of KAT requires the understanding of the counselor about the structure of personality related to the forms of transactions, especially how to form complementary transactions in the process of changing life cript, life position as a process of redecision change.
Based on the purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of transactional counseling counseling to improve self-esteem learners, the research conclusions are: Transactional analysis counseling proved effective enough to improve self-esteem students with low self- esteem in State Junior High School (SMPN) Airmadidi North Minahasa District of North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Transactional analysis counseling is effective enough to improve self-esteem in all three aspects (striving, self-evaluation, and learning from experience). Specifically, the aspect of slef-evaluation has the ability to increase self-esteem in the learners. This is illustrated by the quantitative results in the experimental class. This means that the use of transactional counseling analysis is quite effective in improving the self-esteem of students.
Further research is recommended for: a. Exploring all the techniques and stages in the approach to transactional counseling analysis. b. If you want to use an analytical counseling approach transactional to improve students' self-esteem, researchers then can use different research design, in order to produce more effective results. Research design which can be used for example is a single research design subject.
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