Title of Research : Correlates with the Performance of Athletes in the Eastern Samar Samar State University- Guiuan
Researcher : Alvin B. Lacaba
Co-Author : Teresita Villa G. Lacaba
Keywords; Performance, Coaching skills, Technical skills, Competency, Professional preparation.
This study was conducted to Correlates with the Performance of Athletes in the Eastern Samar State University, Guiuan, Specifically, this study answered the following:
1. What is the level of competency of the faculty-coaches in terms of:
2.1 Professional preparation
2.2 Coaching skill
2.3 Technical skill?
2. What is the level of performance of athletes in the sports competition?
3. Is there a significant relationship between :
3.1. level of competency of faculty-coaches, and level of performance of athletes?
This study employed descriptive-correlation which involved 30 faculty-coaches in the Eastern Samar Samar State University- Guiuan. Data were retrieved using a survey questionnaire. These were tallied and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools such as percentage, mean, Pearson product-moment correlation.
Findings of the study revealed the following information:
The competency of the faculty-coaches in terms of professional preparation, coaching skill, and technical skill of the faculty-coaches were all significantly associated to the performance of athletes. Hence, it was deduced that faculty-coaches who rated themselves higher in these criteria can motivate and train better athletes.
Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions are drawn:
The faculty-coaches were regarded competent since they were professionally prepared for sports, with very good coaching skill and technically capable to handle their respective event or game.
From the findings of the study, the following recommendations are offered:
An organized sports training program should be implemented in the school or division so that all faculty-coaches will be given the chances to be trained especially the new ones.
Further studies maybe conducted to validate the findings of this study.
Athletics is an exclusive collection of sports events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing and walking; the most common types of athletics competition and track and field, road running and race walking
Sports play an important role in the total development of every man. Basically, it helps accelerate the psychomotor development of every learner; then, it further enhances their interpersonal skills and eventually improves not only their physical and social well-being but can also advance the development of his moral and spiritual life to the maximum level. . (Zegaw, 2012).
The school is a venue for skill education and development. It is enjoined by the state to assist each individual to attain his potentials as a human being, as contained in Presidential Decree 6-A highlighting that the state shall recognize the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well-being. The same recognition for the youth is stated in the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines (De Leon, 2002).
Henceforth, understanding of the school sports program concept and its inter-relationships and usefulness should be emphasized. A number of factors with varying importance should be considered in relation with the improvement of the athlete and the development of training program. The basic skills, the techniques, the equipment and facilities are to be studied, introduced and provided to all student/pupil-athletes. Under the guidance of a competent coach who trains earnestly with dedication, athletes will learn the techniques, the strategies, and the methods for competitive level of performance. Other considerations include the level of adequacy of equipment and facilities; equipment whether appropriate or protective clothing should be more adequate, well designed and meets standards for use. Facilities should be suitable, well-lighted, well ventilated and take into accounts the demands of the sports and events (Lirios, 2003).
Indeed, competent and sports-minded faculty and staffs that can make school sports work for and attract student-athletes, provide strong motivation and satisfaction to the athletic delegation and produce high level of athletes’ performance. A study correlates of performance of athletes in the ESSU-Guiuan, is therefore imperative to be able to postulate recommendations which could then be the basis for ESSU-Guiuan to come up with intervening policies for its sports program enhancement, thus this study.
Statement of the Problem
This study was conducted to correlates with the performance of athletes in the ESSU-Guiuan. Its findings served as input for Policy sports program. Specifically, this study answered the following specific problems:
1. What is the level of competency of the faculty-coaches in terms of :
Definition of terms
The variables in this study was defined conceptually and operationally for better understanding of the study:
refers to the coaching ability of the faculty or Instructor as measured through the team preparation and performance during the athletic meet. In this study, competency of the faculty-coach was described by his/her coaching performance as outstanding, very good, good, fair or poor. (Lirios, 2003).
Competency of the faculty-coach includes:
refers to the competency of the faculty-coach in terms of his/her knowledge and understanding of the over-all conditions surrounding the athlete belonging to an institution surrounded by a unique sports environment and culture.
refers to the competency of the faculty-coach in terms of personal compensation, attitude, affection, character, and humor, and these qualities are described, to wit:
. In this study, it refers to the ability of the faculty- coach to perform the expected task especially with regards to the welfare and safety of his athletes.
. In this study, it refers to the ability of faculty-coach to plan, design or layout sets of activities such as training design or game plan for the entire team ahead of time.
. This refers to the ability of the faculty-coach to show or demonstrate caring attitude to the athletes, and consequently achieve mutual respect.
. This refers to the ability of faculty-coach to manifest or exemplify positive and desirable values which will eventually enhance unity and teamwork.
. As the term implies, this refers to the ability of faculty- coach to inject humor, thereby providing an environment free from so much pressure.
refers to the ability of the faculty-coach to introduce, demonstrate and explain the skill to the athletes, and attend to the players practicing the skill.
Faculty-coach refers to a Instructor who works with a team to help improve the playing strategy in a particular game . In this study, this refers to the instructor regardless of teaching assignment in the ESSU-Guiuan who is tasked with the student-athlete’s preparation and coaching roles during athletic unit meet.
refers to the skill or ability of the student-athletes in the different sports or events played in the athletic meet. In this study, this refers to the recognition as outstanding, very good, good, fair or poor, with or without corresponding medal value earned by the athlete or by the team or group of athletes during the sports meet or competition.
This study delves into sets of factor like competency of faculty coaches which are assumed to have significant bearing to the performance of athletes in the ESSU-Guiuan. One of the identified factors are faculty-coach related variables which are anchored from the work of Callanta (2008) which emphasized that the development of sports skills in the athlete requires a dedicated and well-trained faculty coaches who have knowledge and understanding on the sports intricacies. Chamber as sited by Lirios (2003) likewise posited that coaching is a science and art, which involves the physical and mental training of the athletes using modern method verified by researcher. He further asserted that performance of athletes depends on the competency of the coach.
The causality concept of Merrian-Webster was the basis in crafting the conceptual framework of the study, as shown in Figure 1. Accordingly, this causality concept assumed that a variable is related to another variable. Hence this study assumed that the independent variables which include the competency of the faculty-coaches have influence on the dependent variable which is the level of performance of athletes.
Data from the independent variables was collected, analyzed and interpreted to be able to correlates with the level of performance of Athletes in ESSU- Guiuan, Eastern Samar, and further be able to propose recommendations and Policy input for the ESSU sports program.
This chapter presents the research design, measurement of variables, respondents of the study, instrumentation, and data analysis.
The study used the descriptive-correlation method. Zulueta (2004) mentioned that this method is used to evaluate the extent of relationship between the independent and dependent variables. In this study, selected factors like their level of competency were correlated to the level of performance of athletes. A survey questionnaire was used to retrieve needed information of this study.
Measurement of Variables
The variables in this study were measured to the following terminologies for better understanding of the study: To facilitate the analysis of data, the following variables were categorized or coded as follows:
For competency of faculty/coaches:
4.51-5.00 Outstanding 95% to 100% level of competency
3.51-4.50 Very Good 89% to 94% level of competency
2.51-3.50 Good 83% to 88% level of competency
51-2.50 Fair 77% to 82% level of competency
00-1.50 Poor Below 77% level of competency
51-3.50 Good Bronze medal was awarded during the
For Performance of Athletes:
4.51-5.00 Outstanding Gold medal was awarded
during the Sports meet (Champion)
3.51-4.50 Very Good Silver medal was awarded during the
Sports meet (1st runner-up)
Sports meet (2nd runner up)
51-2.50 Fair Won a match during the Sports meet
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of the study are the faculty-coaches and athletes of the ESSU Guiuan Campus, who actually represented as official coaches in the SCUAA Meet, Regional SCUAA Meet, National SCUAA . They come from the Municipality of Guiuan, The table 1. Presents the distribution of faculty-coaches of ESSU - Guiuan according to level of sports meet competition and games assignments.
Table : Distribution of Faculty-Coaches and Athletes of ESSU - Guiuan according to, Sports Meet Competition and Games Assignments.
|Games||Faculty Coaches Male Female||ENTRAMS||Quintuple||Regional SCUAA||National SCUAA|
|Arnis Athletics: Long Jump Running Javelin Throw Shot-put Discus throw||6||2|
Since the total number of the faculty-coaches and athletes are 30, complete enumeration of the faculty-coaches and athletes as respondents was utilized to ensure a high percentage of retrieving valid and reliable information. The lists of the faculty-coaches was taken from the Campus Sports Coordinator was used as basis for the distribution of the questionnaire.
A survey questionnaire was used in the collection of data needed for the study. This questionnaire was adapted from Lirios (2003) in his study entitled “An Evaluation of the Leyte Normal University Varsity Sports Program: Proposed Skill Enhancement Program”, but it was modified to suit the need of the present study.
Part I of the questionnaire will determine the competency of the faculty-coaches. and
Part II will be used to gather data on the level of performance of athletes.
Data were processed with assistance of an expert in the use of Statistical Package of the Social Sciences (SPSS). A correlative method was used to describe the relationship between and among variables and Identify variables that can effectively correlate some outcome or criteria.
Percentage and weighted mean used to determine and describe the competence level of Faculty coaches.
Spearman’s Rho correlations were used to show the significant relationship between the Competence of faculty coaches and the Performance of Athletes.
The null hypotheses below will be tested at 0.05 level of confidence.
There is a significant relationship between the competence and the athletic performance.
Results And Discussion
This chapter presents the results and discussion which answers the specific problems of this investigation.
Competency of Faculty-Coaches
Table shows the distribution of the respondent’s perception on the different competencies that can be observed from the faculty-coaches in the Eastern Samar State University Guiuan along professional preparation. The table indicated that all items were rated good. In fact, it has obtained an overall mean of 3.16. This means that the competency of the ESSU faculty-coaches of Eastern Samar State University Guiuan along professional preparation is at 83% to 88% level of competency.
Table : Competency of Faculty-Coaches in the Eastern Samar State University Guiuan in terms of Professional Preparation, School Year 2016-2017
|Professional Preparation Competency||_ Mean (X)||Descriptive Interpretation|
|An understanding of the relationship of the interscholastic program and the particular sports you are coaching to the total education program.||3.12||Good|
|Knowledge of first-aid and safety practices and techniques pertinent to the sports you are coaching||3.13||Good|
|An understanding of the possibilities of legal liability as well as sound practices and preventive measures.||3.32||Good|
|Knowledge of the most acceptable principles of growth and development and their implications on sports.||3.16||Good|
|An understanding of the basic principles in the care and prevention of injuries together with an understanding of the proper relationship between coach and the school or team physician.||3.11||Good|
|An understanding of the best methods of developing and conditioning members of the athletics team/squad.||3.10||Good|
|An understanding of the basic psychological principles of motivation, stress, play, emotion and group instruction.||3.25||Good|
|Knowledge on the sense of responsibility for local, state, and national sports rules.||3.01||Good|
Coaching Skill. Table shows the distribution of respondents’ perception on the different competencies which can be observed from the faculty-coaches in the Eastern Samar State University Guiuan relative to coaching skill. The table contains the indicators of coaching skill with their corresponding mean scores and descriptive interpretations. Table shows the distribution of respondents’ perception on the different competencies which can be observed from the faculty-coaches in the Eastern Samar State University Guiuan relative to coaching skill. The table contains the indicators of coaching skill with their corresponding mean scores and descriptive interpretations.
As to compensation, result showed that responses along the competencies rated varied from good to very good, but all the scores were interpreted as good with the grand mean of 3.36. This means that faculty-coaches possess good ability to perform the tasks concerning the welfare and safety of the athletes.
As to outlook, the data revealed that all the competencies along with this indicator were rated very good by the faculty-coaches. The computed grand mean was 3.71. This indicates that faculty-coaches are very good in planning or foresight.
Under affection indicator, the competency “thank the athletes for their efforts” got the highest mean of 4.05, and interpreted as very good. The other competencies obtained lower mean values but were also interpreted very good. The computed grand mean was 3.93. This result suggests that the faculty-coaches have very good caring attitude to the athletes.
With regards to the competencies rated on character, all the respondents had similar views and their responses were interpreted as very good. The overall mean for this indicator was 3.81. This result indicates that faculty-coaches manifested very good positive and desirable values.
In the humor competencies, only the item “able to laugh at the mistakes committed” got a lower main value of 3.33. All the other items obtained higher mean values. The overall mean for this coaching skill indicator was 3.85, and is described as very good. This means that faculty-coaches have very good ability to provide the athletes with a pressure-free environment.
The overall grand mean for coaching skill was 3.73 which is interpreted as very good.
With the foregoing results, it can be inferred that ESSU faculty-coaches of Eastern Samar State University Guiuan possess very good coaching skill of 89% to 94% level of competency.
Table: Competency of Faculty-Coaches in the Eastern Samar State University Guiuan in terms of Coaching Skill, School Year 2016-2017
|Coaching Skill Competency||_ Mean (X)||Descriptive Interpretation|
|A.Compensation 1. Explains the rules of the sport/game to athletes without studying for a long time.||3.12||Good|
|2. Organizes and conducts safe sports practice||3.32||Good|
|3. Provides first aid for most sports injuries||3.02||Good|
|4. Considers safety first policy||3.52||Very Good|
|5. Accepts coaching as a responsibility||3.80||Very Good|
|B.Outlook 1. Considers the interests of all athletes ahead of winning when coaching.||3.66||Very Good|
|2. Plans for every meeting, practice and game.||3.57||Very Good|
|3. Has vision of what he wanted his players to be.||3.87||Very Good|
|4. Has positive belief in the capabilities of the athletes.||3.70||Very Good|
|5. Provides recognition for good performance.||3.76||Very Good|
|C.Affection 1. Enjoys working with the athletes.||3.97||Very Good|
|2. Has patience in teaching new skill.||3.74||Very Good|
|3. Shows caring attitude to the athletes.||3.99||Very Good|
|4. Understands the physical limitation of the athletes.||3.88||Very Good|
|5. Thanks the athletes for their efforts.||4.05||Very Good|
|D.Character 1. Words and actions are consistent with each other.||3.75||Very Good|
|2. Model to the athletes.||3.81||Very Good|
|3. Keeps negative emotions under control before, during, and after games.||3.64||Very Good|
|4. Cultivates enthusiasm.||3.91||Very Good|
|5. Fair in every decisions.||3.94||Very Good|
|E.Humor 1. Smiles at the athletes.||4.27||Very Good|
|2. Practices the game with fun.||4.04||Very Good|
|3. Able to laugh at the mistakes committed.||3.33||Good|
|4. Makes warm up and cool down activities with fun.||3.75||Very Good|
|5. Injects humour during conversation.||3.84||Very Good|
. Table shows the distribution of respondents’ perception on the different competencies that can be observed from the faculty-coaches in the Eastern Samar State University Guiuan along with technical skill. The table contains the indicators of technical skill with the corresponding mean values and descriptive interpretations.
As to the indicator Introduce the Skill, the data revealed that majority (60%) of the competencies rated by the faculty-coaches obtained mean values which were interpreted as very good, while the remaining items (40%) obtained mean values which were described as good. The mean value for this indicator of technical skill was 3.55 which is interpreted as very good. This result infers that the faculty-coaches are very good in introducing the skill to their athletes.
In Demonstrate the Skill indicator, result showed that all the competencies under this particular indicator obtained a mean value of 3.22 which were all described as good. This result suggests that faculty-coaches are good in demonstrating the skill to their athletes.
In Explain the Skill indicator, all competencies along with this indicator got a mean value of 3.24 with descriptive interpretation as good. This means that faculty-coaches are good in explaining the skill to their athletes.
For the indicator Attend to Players Practicing the Skill, almost all items got mean scores which were interpreted as good, except “provides positive and corrective feedback” which obtained a higher mean score of 3.57 and was interpreted as very good. However, the mean value for this particular technical skill was 3.38, which description is good. This result indicates that the faculty-coaches are good in attending to their athletes who are practicing the skill.
Generally, with the grand mean of 3.34 computed for technical skill, it can be deduced that ESSU faculty-coaches of Eastern Samar State University Guiuan possess good technical skill with 83% to 88% level of competency.
Competency of Faculty-Coaches in the Eastern Samar State University Guiuan in terms of Technical Skill, School Year 2016-2017
|Technical Skills||_ Mean (X)||Descriptive Interpretation|
|A. Introduce the Skill 1. Get the players’ attention.||3.77||Very Good|
|2. Name the skill performed.||3.56||Very Good|
|3. Explains the importance of the skill.||3.68||Very Good|
|4. Possesses broad background about the skill.||3.27||Good|
|5. Can clarify and answer questions about the skill.||3.47||Good|
|B. Demonstrate the Skill 1. Uses correct demonstration technique/form.||3.36||Good|
|2. Demonstrates all the skill required for the game.||3.22||Good|
|3. Slows down the skill demonstration during one or two performances so players can see every movement involved.||3.23||Good|
|4. Performs the skill at different angles so players can get a full perspective of it.||3.14||Good|
|5. Demonstrates the skill several times.||3.17||Good|
|C. Explain the Skill 1. Shows the correct performance of the entire skill and explain its function.||3.32||Good|
|2. Breaks down the skill and points out its component parts to athletes.||3.20||Good|
|3. Have the athletes perform each of the component skill you have already taught.||3.27||Good|
|4. After the players have demonstrated their ability to perform the skill in sequence, re-explains the entire skill.||3.12||Good|
|5. Have players practice and explain the skill.||3.28||Good|
|D. Attend to Players Practicing the Skill 1. Has physically guided through the movements.||3.33||Good|
|2. Allows hit and miss trial performance athletes.||3.28||Good|
|3. Provides positive and corrective feedback.||3.57||Very Good|
|4. Give individual instruction.||3.42||Good|
|5. Provides on-the-spot comment/correction.||3.31||Good|
Performance of Athletes
Table shows the performance of athletes for the last three (3) years. The performance of athletes was based on the medals garnered and the corresponding points earned. It can be noted from the table that except group games for women which were rated fair, other games were rated good.
The result showed that in most of the individual games played, both men and women consistently showed good performances from 2015 through 2017 as shown by the mean values falling within 2.51 to 3.50. As to group games, men consistently showed good performances for three (3) years with a grand mean value of 3.07 compared to women with only fair performances represented by a grand mean value of 2.29.
It can be inferred from the foregoing results that in the three-year succession of unit meets, the performance of the athletes were good as they fall on the Second Runner Up recognition where bronze medals were received during the Quintuple meets for both individual games for men and women as well as in group games for men. The women who played group games did not received any medal but have won a match during the Quintuple meets.
Table: Performance of Athletes in the Eastern Samar State University during the Quintuple Meet for the last 3 Years
|Games||2015||2016||2017||Grand Mean And Interpretation|
|Mean||Descriptive Interpretation||Mean||Descriptive Interpretation||Mean||Descriptive Interpretation|
|Individual (men) Individual (women) Group (men) Group (women)||2.93 3.06 3.35 2.23||Good Good Good Fair||2.51 2.79 2.85 2.34||Good Good Good Fair||3.06 2.95 3.00 2.29||Good Good Good Fair||2.83 ( Good ) 2.93 ( Good ) 3.07 ( Good ) 2.29 ( Fair )|
|Grand Mean||2.89||Good||2.62||Good||2.83||Good||2.78 ( Good )|
Relationship Between Competency of Faculty-Coaches and the Performance of Athletes
. Table portrays the relationship between professional preparation of faculty-coaches and performance of athletes. The data indicated that the index of correlation obtained was .357 with a p-value of 0.040 which means significant. Thus, the null hypothesis stating no significant relationship between the professional preparation of faculty-coaches and performance of athletes is rejected. This means that faculty-coaches who are professionally prepared would develop better-performing athletes.
This finding is supported by the report of Callanta (2008) stating that the development of sport skills in the athlete requires a well-trained faculty-coach who has knowledge and understanding on the sports intricacies. He further stated that coaches with skills derived from a more up-to-date academic background are far more capable of training globally-competitive athletes.
Table : Relationship Between the Competency of Faculty-Coaches and the Performance of Athletes in the Eastern Samar State University Guiuan
|Professional Preparation||Performance of Athletes||.357||0.040||Significant|
On Coaching Skill and Performance of Athletes Table also illustrates the relationship between coaching skill of faculty-coaches and performance of athletes The index of correlation of 598 and a p-value of 0018 can be interpreted as significant Hence, the null hypothesis stating no significant relationship between the coaching skill of faculty-coaches and performance of athletes is rejected It can be implied that better coaching skill of the faculty leads to better performance of the athletes
This finding is supported by Lirios (2003) when he disclosed that under the guidance of a competent coach who trains earnestly with dedication, the athletes will learn the technique, strategies, and method for competitive level of performance.
. On Table, it can be gleaned that the relationship between technical skill of faculty-coaches and performance of athletes is significant. This was based on the index of correlation obtained which was .487 and p-value of 0.021. This result suggests rejection of the null hypothesis stipulating no significant relationship between the technical skill of faculty-coaches and performance of athletes. It can be implied that faculty-coaches who are technically skilled in their chosen game or event would likely to develop better-performing athletes.
On account of the overall competency (professional preparation, coaching skill, and technical skill) of the faculty-coach, Kim, Young Su (2000) braces up this findings of the study with his conclusion that there is a need for an improved and effective training program for coaches to become more responsive to the needs of the swimming athlete and be able to attain high level of performance. Thus the athlete will become competitive in any swimming tournament level.
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