The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of selected school based factors on girls’ participation rate in public day secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya. Ex-post facto research design was used in the study. A total of 130 respondents (constituting 26 principals and 104 teachers) from 26 schools were randomly sampled for the study. All the targeted respondents participated in the study giving a response rate of 100%. Simple random sampling technique was used to sample the respondents for the study. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire where two sets of questionnaires were developed for data collection; one for principals and the other for class teachers. Descriptive statistics such as means, percentages and frequencies were used to analyze the data while inferential statistics such as simple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive power of school based factors on girls’ participation in school. The study found that three school-level risk factors that had the most negative impact on girls rate of participation in public day secondary schools in the sub-county were: low sense of belonging among girls to their schools, inadequate counseling of girls in schools and low academic performance. Drawing from the computed R2 value (R2 = .426), the study revealed that the selected school level factors were lowering the rate of girls participation in public day secondary schools by almost 43%. The study concluded that that school level factors such as: low sense of belonging among girls to their schools, inadequate counseling of girls in schools and low academic performance had a negative influence on girls’ rate of participation in public day secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-county. It was recommended that public day secondary school educators, specifically principals, counselors and teachers should focus their attention enhancing girls’ participation rate in their schools.
Formal education plays a key role in the overall development process in a nation. This view is grounded in the fact that education does not only equip citizens with knowledge and skills but is also a critical tool for imparting values deemed necessary for the growth and development of a nation. Psacharopoulos (1987) has further observed that investment in human capital through formal education is the most effective way of stimulating positive development in a country. It is for this reason that the government of Kenya has continued to invest heavily in education due to the conviction that education and training are important ingredients for the creation of manpower requirements in all aspects of national development.
One of the critical determinants of successful growth and development process in a nation is access to quality learning in the lower levels of education system. The lower levels of education in Kenya comprise three sub- systems namely, pre-primary, primary and secondary cycles (Republic of Kenya, 2013). The latter prepares learners for further education and training in post-secondary institutions. Additionally, secondary education sub-system in Kenya aims at promoting the growth of an individual towards maturity and self-fulfillment so as to make the individual to be a useful and well-adjusted member of the society.
In spite of the immense role that education plays in a nation, it is disheartening to mention that there are gender disparities in favor of boys in regard to access and participation at the basic level of education. The disparity in gender participation in secondary school is in regard to enrolment, retention and completion of secondary school cycle in education where the girls are disadvantaged. Data from WMS III (1997) indicates that men have a higher enrolment, retention and completion rate in the secondary school cycle of education compared to women irrespective of poverty levels and region. UNDP (2002) further observed that globally, total enrolment of boys in both primary and secondary schools was 55% while that of girls stood at 45% in 2001. A similar scenario is prevalent in Kenya. For instance, as was observed by FAWE (2005), enrolment of girls in the country’s basic education sector was not at parity with that of boys owing to the tendency by girls to drop out of the education system before reaching the final grade. This enrolment disparity was similarly noted by the Ministry of Education (2005) which observed that inspite of increased public investment in basic education, girls’ level of enrolment and completion rates were a challenge, particularly in the arid parts of the country. The noted gap in girls’ participation rate in Kenya’s basic education sector is aptly demonstrated in table1 with regard to the secondary education cycle between 2009 and 2014.
|Year||Gender||Total||Parity index (Girls/Boys)|
Enrolment in Secondary ( Nationally) by Gender 2009 - 2014 in Thousands ('000) and Gender Parity Index
Source: Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, 2014
A look at the data presented in table 1 reveals that there was gender enrolment disparity in favour of boys at the secondary education cycle for the period running between 2009 - 2014. There was a similar scenario in Naivasha Sub-county where the study was carried out as shown in table 2.
Table 2: Student Enrolment in Naivasha Sub - County by Gender (2007 - 2011)
( Figures in parenthesis represent percentages)
Source: Naivasha Sub-county Secondary School Enrolment Data ( 2016).
An examination of the summarized data in table 2 demonstrates that there was gender enrolment disparity in favour of boys in Naivasha Sub-county between 2009 and 2016. This implies that, in spite of the introduction of free secondary education in Kenya in 2008, girls’ enrolment in secondary schools in the sub-county is yet to be at par with that of boys. Indeed, the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) exit examination candidature, as shown in table 3 clearly shows that boys outnumbered girls for the six years captured in the table.
|2011||1035( 51 )||995( 49 )||2030|
Number of Students Enrolled for KCSE Examination in Naivasha Sub - County by Gender Between the Year 2011 and 2016
Source: Naivasha Sub-county student enrolment data ( 2016)
There is a need to point out that aggregate candidature in exit examination is a reliable indicator of total student enrolment and successful progression of enrollees up to the terminal grade or class for that matter. In this regard, it can be argued that girl’s enrolment in secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-county has been consistently lower than that of boys. Alternatively, there are chances that girls could be dropping out of secondary schools in the sub-county before reaching the final grade.
Admittedly, women play multiple roles in production and reproduction at the household and societal level (Todaro, 1985). In this regard, a country is highly likely to achieve more returns by educating its women. For instance, basic education for women does not only lower fertility rates but also increases agricultural output since women are the main agricultural subsistence producers, more so in the developing world (World Bank, 1989). Moreover, Article 53 (1) of Kenya’s constitution aptly states that every child irrespective of gender has a right to free and compulsory basic education (Republic of Kenya, 2013). This constitutional provision is further articulated in the Basic Education Act whose article 4 stipulates that provision of basic education in Kenya shall be guided by the principle of the right of every child to free and compulsory basic education and elimination of gender discrimination at all levels of basic education (Republic of Kenya, 2013).
Drawing from the foregoing statutory provisions, it can rightly be argued that low girls’ participation in secondary education in Kenya limits their full enjoyment of one of the basic human rights. Moreover, differential access (in favour of boys) to secondary education denies the country the expected pay-offs from educated women. For instance, educated women are not only more likely to have fewer children, thereby lowering the socio-economic burdens associated with large families but have also higher chances of availing requisite provisions for their children including quality healthcare and education (Chiuri & Kiumi, 2005, Yieke, 2015).
The Government of Kenya has initiated strategies to enhance gender parity in access to secondary education. These strategies among others include, positive discrimination in favour of girls during admission to form one, creation of girls rescue centers in arid regions, provision of sanitary towels to girls in secondary schools in low income regions, campaigns against Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and implementation of the “Return to School Policy” for young mothers (Republic of Kenya, 2006, Republic of Kenya, 2005). In spite of the foregoing cited initiatives, girls are yet to catch up with their male counterparts in accessing secondary education, particularly in disadvantaged regions of the country. Some of the factors severally cited in documented literature (research based and otherwise) include backward cultural practices in the community (e.g., FGM, early marriages, inadequate positive role models in the community and tendency by some communities to disvalue girl child education (Republic of Kenya, 2006; Bruns & Mingat, 2003).
Other factors that have been linked to low girls’ participation in secondary education are those rooted in child’s home environment. For example girls hailing from poor households tend to experience the duo challenges of inadequate supply of personal effect and being forced by parents to argument family resources through engagement in income generating activities like hawking , cleaning utensils in food kiosks, selling fruits and vegetables in market places and babysitting, (Kiome, 2015; Chiuri & Kiumi, 2005, Ministry of Education, 2007). Girls affected by these negative factors tend to withdraw from school prematurely. Furthermore, poor families are less likely to provide for their children including argumentation of education with resources at home that can spark and sustain interest in learning in the absence of the teacher (Kiumi, Kibe, & Ng’ang’a, 2013). This scenario has the potential to make a child lose interest in education, a factor that may compel the child to dropout from school. In most cases, girls tend to be more affected than boys due to the tendency by economically poor parents to attach a low premium on girl child education (Sifuna, 2006).
Apart from community and home based factors, existing literature consistently shows that the school environment has a significant share in regard to the global factors attributed to the relatively higher enrolment gap of girls in secondary schools compared to boys. Some of the documented factors include, lack of girl friendly facilities , specifically latrines that can provide some privacy, lack or inadequate provision of sanitary towels and bullying by their male colleagues in co-educational schools (UNESCO, 2003; Girl Child Network, 2008). It has similarly been observed that in a school environment where teachers subscribe to the view that girls are less endowed intellectually, girls may be relegated to the periphery in regard to academic matters at the classroom and school-wide levels. Kendall (2006) has for instance reported on a study carried out by USAID in Malawi which revealed that girls in most schools were not only perceived by teachers as dull / weak, but were also assigned low status tasks such as sweeping and arranging classroom furniture. Comparatively, boys were viewed as intellectually strong which explained why they were allocated higher status tasks such as timekeeping and bell ringing. Proceeding from the foregoing expositions, girl-child education at the secondary level of education, it can be reasoned that for girls to enjoy fully their basic right to secondary education in addition to enabling them to play their rightful role in society, there is need to both document and mitigate obstacles that could be hindering their full participation at this level of education.
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Secondary school education in Kenya is a basic human right irrespective of a child’s gender. Nonetheless, although the government of Kenya is committed to this philosophy, girl’s enrolment in secondary schools is yet to be at par with that of boys. Documented literature seems to indicate that unfavorable school environment is one of the risk factors that impact negatively on girl’s participation in secondary education. However, the extent to which this factor influences girls’ participation rate in public day secondary schools has not been investigated. To fill the gap that exists in the literature, this study sought to determine the influence of selected school based factors on girls’ participation rate in public day secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya.
II: Literature Review
This section presents the theories used in the study and the relevant literature on the influence of school based factors on the participation of girls in schools.
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Social learning theory by Bandura was used in the study.
Social Learning Theory
Bandura (1977), in his social learning theory stated that behavior is learned from environment through the process of observational learning. He said that children observe people around them behaving in various ways (Bandura, 1961). Individuals observed by children are called models in society, and children are surrounded by many influential models such as parents, family members, characters on television, friends within their peer group and teachers at school. Children observe and imitate behavior at a later time. This theory therefore supports the influence of role models at home and school on the participation of girls in education.
2.7 The Influence of School Based Factors on Girls Participation in Secondary School
These are factors within the school that have a negative impact on girls’ education. They include negative peer pressure, gender stereotyped roles, low academic performance, type of school, teacher biases, availability of sanitary facilities, discrimination by teachers, inadequate teaching learning resources, sexual harassment by male counterparts, among others.
Influence of Negative Peer Pressure
Once students are enrolled in school they interact and form peer groups Wrigley (1995). These peer groups sometimes spur students to think beyond the ideological limits laid on them. Wanyoike (2003) concurs with Wrigley and points out that the students peer groups if not guided can lead to devastating results like engaging in drugs and substance abuse, early sex and then get to dangerous diseases like HIV and AIDS and early pregnancies and there this influences the participation of girls in schools.
Influence of Gender Discrimination against Girls
Brigeon (2005) in his survey on making schools safe for girls in Rift valley Province revealed that girls and their families may find little reason to attend school if they are tracked to low paid occupations considered traditional for women. He observed that many developing countries practice gender streaming in secondary school, directing girls away from Mathematics and Sciences. Teaching practices like giving boys more opportunities than girls to ask and answer questions, using learning materials and lead discussion groups may further discourage girls in actively participating in educational activities.
A study conducted by Mwandosya (2001) in Kenya and Tanzania on girls education revealed that over 2000 teachers who participated maintained separate rows for boys in class and asked the male students more questions compared to girls. Another set of factors that have been found to influence decisions about enrolment and persistence are those that relate to teaching and the organization and structure of the school and its environment. Both male and female teachers have been found to have lower expectations of girls’ academic ability. Boys are perceived to be intelligent, hardworking, motivated and co-operative whilst girls are perceived to be easy to control, passive, calm and submissive (Kainja and Mkandawire, 1990). In addition, teaching practices have been observed to have negative consequences for girls’ education. Boys are called more often than girls to answer questions in a class (Davison and Kanyuka, 1990).
Curricula and teaching materials remain gender biased to a large degree and are rarely sensitive, to the specific needs of girls and women (Johannes, 2010). The system reinforces tradition and female roles that deny women opportunities for full and equal partnership in society. There are no gender awareness educators at any level of education. This has strengthened the existing inequities between males and females by reinforcing discriminatory tendencies and by undermining girls’ self-esteem. The system also lacks sexual and reproductive health education, which has a profound impact on both sexes. Science curricula in particular are also gender biased. Science textbook do not relate to women‘s and girl‘s daily experiences and fail to give recognition to women scientists. Girls are often deprived of the basic education in mathematics and science and technical training, which provide knowledge that they could apply to improve their daily lives and enhance their employment opportunities. The influence of gender discrimination by teachers on the participation of girls in secondary schools was investigated in this study.
Influence of Gender Stereotyped Roles
Stereotyped roles that make girls easily misused in school include preparing tea and lunch for teachers at break time and lunchtime respectively, washing utensils and fetching water for teachers (Eshiwani, 1985). Abagi (1992) also observed that girls waste a lot of learning time when they are sent to teachers’ houses to take books which creates room for sexual harassments. While performing such roles the girls sacrifice their studies hence end up performing poorly in class. Too often, schools themselves hurt the cause of girls’ education. There are few women teachers, or if there are female instructors, the head teachers are male (Koech, 1999). Textbooks may reinforce gender stereotypes, with boys depicted as active and girls as passive. Curricula often exclude girls from mathematics, science and technology. Girls drop out of school when classes are not relevant, if there are no role models or if completing school fails to prepare them for meaningful employment (Koech, 1999).
Influence of Academic Performance
Abidha (1998) raised a great concern on unsatisfactory performance and achievement of girls across the education system. The survey carried out in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education results in Kenya revealed that girls perform poorly in almost all subjects compared to boys. This becomes even worse as they move up in the education ladder. This is also supported by Fatuma and Sifuna (2006).The fact that the curriculum fails to address the needs of the girls who acts the role of mothers and are mostly absent from school is a great concern. This makes them also suffer from chronic fatigue, lack of concentration in school and forced repetition in classes. Their academic performance is hence impaired and self-image lowered and eventually these girls drop out of school (UNESCO, 2002).
Influence of Type of School Curriculum
The type of school can influence the education of the girl-child. Girls in girl’s schools perform better than those in co-educational schools and can excel as well as boys even better (Burton, 1993). This is partly due to the fact that in co-educational schools the learning environment is not enabling for girls, it is full of gender biases which discourage them to excel academically. It has been noted that girls who attend single sex schools perform better in national Examination than those in co-educational schools. According to Kilo (1994), girls perform better than boys and this is because such girls come from better socio-economic backgrounds than boys. He stresses that gender biases are prevalent in the official curriculum, teaching materials and codes of behaviors. Moreover, free Primary Education policy emphasizes gender balance in education (UNICEF, 1997). According to the Ministry of Gender, teachers under-rate girls’ academic potential and therefore tend to give more of their time to boys. They argue that the purpose of education is to provide all children with the opportunity to learn by doing, participating, sharing and discussing. The study investigated the influence of academic performance on the participation of girls in secondary schools in Naivasha Sub –County, Kenya.
Influence of Cost of Education
According to World Bank (1991), fundamental socio-cultural bias in favor of males, the economic factor, especially in terms of grinding poverty and hunger, is probably the most influential in adversely affecting female participation in education, especially in rural areas. In such harsh economic circumstances, both direct and hidden costs to a family of sending daughters to school are perceived by parents to be prohibitive in terms of the provision of books, uniforms as well as the loss of vital help at home and on the land. In most cases, the contribution of females is unpaid and they may have little or no experience of the handling of money, which further reduces their status and power, but increases their vulnerability. Because of the patriarchal predominance, investment in a girl's schooling is wasteful since it benefits the family into which a girl marries rather than her own. This study investigated the extent to which the cost of education influences the participation of girls in secondary schools in, Kenya.
Influence of Sexual Harassment
There have been a number of reported cases on teachers harassing female or male students sexually. It is disturbing to realize that the teachers entrusted with the care of children are responsible for impregnating girls. A survey carried in Turkana by Brigeon (2005) indicated that girls were subjected to harassment from male peers and by male teachers. He compares this with the survey carried out in Cameroon which revealed that 27 percent of girls who were interviewed reported they had sex with teachers. In conclusion Brigeon recommended the need to change behavior pattern which involves significant cultural changes. Sexual harassment was noted as a factor leading to female students drop out in co – educational schools. This was by both the male counterparts and teachers (UNESCO, 2002). Fatuma and Sifuna (2006) noted that there was high drop out among girls compared to boys (5.1 % and 4.6 % respectively) nationally. This was attributed to pre-marital pregnancies whereby most of these pregnancies involved teachers. This is supported by Wamahiu (1997).
Influence of School Environment
According to MOE (2007) gender insensitive school environment include attitudes of the key stakeholders in the school leads to many reported incidents of sexual harassment and gender based biases. An educational brief of 2006 indicated that an investigation was being done in a primary school in Nyanza after eight girls dropped out of school due to pregnancy in one year (Daily Nation, 2006). This is also supported by Abagi (1992) in his report on gap in education and emerging democratic society in Kenya.
There are arguments that school environments are at times not conducive to effective learning and this may ultimately lead to underachievement which results in repetition; a precursor for dropout. Arguments against repetition basically stress that repetition h as potentially harmful effects on students’ self-esteem and attributes towards schooling and [this] increases the likelihood of dropping out of school (Cuadra, 1992). Indeed some studies have actually shown that this relationship does exist School environments also seem to affect the two sexes differently.
The school environment especially the teachers’ attitudes, behaviour and teaching practices have perhaps the most significant implications for female persistence and academic achievement (Odaga 1995). This problem is rooted in societal beliefs which teachers bring into the classroom scenario. This can therefore be linked to the cultural beliefs which tend to look at females as having less ability than males and hence leads to the marginalization of girls in the classroom and further de-motivates girls in their academic pursuits.
Influence of Availability of Sanitary Facilities
Inadequate sanitary facilities such as toilets have the potential to influence girls’ participation in schools (Tembon 1997 et al, Rose et al 1997, Herz 1995). Too often, schools have polluted water supplies and filthy, broken latrines. In many cases there are no water or sanitation facilities at all. Health education curricula are undermined if children are unable to practice what they learn about drinking safe water or washing their hands. If parents think that schools are hazardous places, they will keep their children home. Many times girls who put up with deplorable conditions drop out once they begin to menstruate. Improving water and sanitation in schools will not only shift gender parity in education into high gear, but will also improve the odds of meeting the health related Millennium Development Goals.
Influence of Female Teacher Role Models
According to the ministry of education, science and technology (MoEST, 2010), the girl child lacks role models. Statistics from the ministry show that female teachers account for only about 30 per cent of the teaching staff. Most of these are to be found in the urban areas, leaving very few teachers in the rural areas. Remarkable efforts have been made to ensure that every child gets access to quality basic education, but we note that only about ten countries have achieved universal primary education. Although enrolment has increased considerably in many countries, it has not been adequate to accommodate rapid population growth and rural-to-urban migration, thereby giving an impression of being static relative to population size. Early childhood care and education programs are limited to the few in the urban areas. Based on countries' own estimates, between 1990 and 1998, the net enrolment of boys increased by 9 per cent to 56 percent and of girls by 7 per cent to 48 percent in sub-Saharan Africa (Offorma, 2009).
Influence of Infrastructure
The poor infrastructure and un-conducive environment both at home and in school should be addressed with urgency and secondary education be made compulsory to girls. It is from this point of view that Ministry of Education in collaboration with its partner has developed gender policy to address critical issues related to gender and education (Republic of Kenya 2007). Universal education depends on an infrastructure that supports quality education. Requirements for accessible, gender-sensitive schooling go beyond the physical structure of a building or the classroom content. If schools are located far from communities or students must travel on unsafe or nonexistent roads, creative solutions to these problems must be found. The study set to investigate the influence of infrastructure on the participation of girls in secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-county, Kenya.
This study was carried out in public secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-county of Nakuru County, Kenya. The population for the study included 28 principals and 112 class teachers in the 28 public secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-county. Ex-post facto research design was used in the study. According to Krecjie and Morgan’s (1970) sampling formulation, the ideal sample size (n) in a population of 28 subjects is 26 cases. This is equivalent to 93% of the total number of subjects in the population. Thus a total of 130 respondents (constituting 26 principals and 104 teachers) from 26 schools were randomly sampled for the study. All the targeted respondents participated in the study giving a response rate of 100%. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire where two sets of questionnaires were developed for data collection; one for principals and the other for class teachers. Five point likert scale was used in the questionnaire where the scoring was done using a tick against the statement given in scale from strongly disagree, disagree, not sure, agree and strongly agree. The collected data were edited, coded and entered into SPSS version 22 for analysis. Descriptive statistics such as means, percentages and frequencies were used to analyze the data while inferential statistics such as simple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive power of school based factors on girls’ participation in school.
IV. Findings of the Study
This section presents the findings of the study on the influence of selected school based factors on girls’ participation rate in public day secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya.
4.1 School Based factors and Girls’ Participation Rate in Secondary Schools
Respondents’ mean scores on perceived influence of school based factors on girls’ participation is summarized in table 4.
|School based factors||Mean score|
|Teacher biases towards girls||2.19|
|Inadequate girl friendly sanitary facilities in schools||3.44|
|Inadequate girl focused guidance and counseling services||3.11|
|Inadequate female teacher role models||3.05|
|Incidences of girl harassment by male student||2.53|
|Low level of academic performance by girls||3.48|
|Negative influence of peer pressure among girls||3.80|
|Perceived low sense of belonging to the school||3.70|
|Perceived insecurity in school among girls||2.50|
|Unfriendly attitude towards girls by teachers||2.20|
|Overall mean score||3.01|
Influence of School Based Factors on Girls Participation in Secondary School Education
A look at the data captured in table 4 clearly shows that the combined negative effect of the selected school factors (mean = 3012) on girls participation rate in secondary schools in the study area was high (see table 4) It is also evident from the table that the three factors that had the highest negative effect on the rate of girls’ participation in secondary schools were perceived low sense of belonging by girls to their respective schools (mean 370), low academic performance among girls (mean =348) and inadequate counseling of girls in schools (mean = 311) The three school factors that had minimal impact on girls rate of school participation were teachers biases towards girls (mean = 219), unfriendly attitude towards girls by teachers (mean = 220) and perceived insecurity in schools (mean – 250)
4.2 Predictive Capacity of School Factors on Girls Rate of Participation in Secondary Schools
The purpose of the study was to find out whether the selected school based factors have any influence on girls’ rate of participation in public day secondary schools in the study area. To realize the purpose of the study, null hypothesis was formulated as follows:
HO1: School based factors have no statistically significant influence on girls’ participation rate in public day secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya
The hypothesis presumed that school based factors have no statistically significant influence on girls participation rate in public day secondary schools in the study area.
In order to ascertain the truth of this assumption, scores generated from the likert items in principals’ questionnaire were subjected to simple regression analysis. The results of simple regression analysis are summarized in table 5.
|Dependent||Girls’ participation rate in public day secondary schools||.515||.426||93||5.247||.000*|
|Independent||Selected home factors||Beta (β)||t||.000*|
Regression Analysis Summary between School Factors and Girls’ Participation Rate in Public Day Secondary Schools
*Significant .05 alpha level
It is notable from the summarized data in table 5 that the computed F-ratio was statistically significant (F=5.247, P<.05). This implies that there was a statistically significant linear relationship between the selected school factors and girls participation rate in public day secondary schools in the study area. Further perusal of the data reveals that the generated beta value (β= -.614) was not only negative but also statistically significant (t = -5.247; p, .05). The calculated R value (R = .426) shows that the selected school factors jointly accounted for 43% variation in the rate of girl’s participation in public day secondary schools. In short, 43% of the rate of non-participation of girls in public day secondary schools in the study was rooted in the selected school factors.
Based on the foregoing findings, the null hypothesis (H01) was rejected. This rejection led to the conclusion that the selected school factors and rate of girls’ participation in public secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-county were not statistically independent.
4.3 Principals’ Suggestions for Mitigating School Level Risk Factors to Girls’ Participation in Public Day Secondary Schools
Principals were asked to give suggestions on the ways of mitigating the influence of school level risks on the participation of girls in public secondary schools in Naivasha sub-county. The suggestions given were as summarized on table 6 below.
|Suggestions||Frequency (f)||Percentage (%)|
|Educate parents and guardians on the need to support girl child education||2||8|
|School managers to create child friendly environment in schools||3||12|
|NGO’s to sponsor schooling of needy girls||2||8|
|Improve guidance and counseling services in schools||4||15|
|Government to increase funding of education||11||42|
|Setting up boarding facility for girls||4||15|
Principals’ Suggestions for Mitigating School Level Risk Factors to Girls’ Participation in Public-Day Secondary Schools
Source; Field data (2015
An inspection of the data presented in table 6 shows that the suggestion that east endorsed by the highest proportion of principal (42%) in regard to addressing school level risk factors to girls participation in public –day secondary schools in the study area was the need to increase the level of government capitation in day secondary schools. The other suggestions that were supported by a sizeable proportion of respondents were the need to increase boarding facilities for girls and upgrading of guidance and counseling services in schools both of which were endorsed by 15% of the respondents. The least cited suggestions (8% in each case) were the need to sensitize parents and guardians on their obligations in girl child education and support for girl child education by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
V. Summary of the Findings of the Study
The study found that three school-level risk factors that had the most negative impact on girls rate of participation in public day secondary schools in the sub-county were: low sense of belonging among girls to their schools, inadequate counseling of girls in schools and low academic performance. Drawing from the computed R value (R = .426), the study revealed that the selected school level factors were lowering the rate of girls participation in public day secondary schools by almost 43%.
The study concluded that that school level factors such as: low sense of belonging among girls to their schools, inadequate counseling of girls in schools and low academic performance had a negative influence on girls’ rate of participation in public day secondary schools in Naivasha Sub-county.
The study recommended that public day secondary school educators, specifically principals, counselors and teachers should focus their attention enhancing girls’ participation rate in their schools. For instance, girls must be motivated to love their schools through counseling so as to perceive themselves as important members of the school community. It was also recommended that teacher counselors should develop girl-focused counseling programmes whose major goal should be to enhance self-confidence and self-efficacy among girls. It was finally recommended that teachers should consistently expose girls to the array of opportunities available for educated women within and outside Kenya. With this kind of information, girls in public day secondary school are not only less likely to miss school but may also aspire to achieve in the academics
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