In the context of territorial intelligence, territorial actors and, in large part, public administrations in particular are in constant development.
For this reason and to support territorial development, several theories and practices have been adopted.
Among the theories developed to carry out the function of territorial governance, we find the stakeholder theory that comes to put in place a strategy centered on the systems of corporate governance.
Thus, the NPM also appears as a new management tool, considered as a "hybrid, processual and evolutionary construct" or/and as a slippery label.
The present article aims to conduct a literature review of the above mentioned theories in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of each.