A logo is one of the basic components in a corporate identity or brand identity. It is the graphic representation of what an organisation is. A logo would manage to evoke the consumers’ memories. In this paper, Recognisable Logo Design Specification Guideline (RLDSG) is introduced as a process to establish the recognisable logo design that is incorporated with consumers’ emotions evaluation through the logo design perceptions for startup bramds. The RLDSG is a design guideline attempt to establish Recognisable Logo Design (RLD) towards the contribution to sustainability and successful brand logo perceptions. The investigation was conducted involving an existing brand logo design from Pos Malaysia to elaborate a logo criteria and recognisable factors of the logo. Logo design from Pos Malaysia showed that the entire element were significant to reach the recognisable logo design requirement. The verification signified from this process increases the ability of graphic designers and marketers to introduce a new logo based on design requirements and preferences.
The importance of the establishment of a successful brand has the same importance as having eye-catching symbols; something that most companies have overlooked. Understanding the link between logo design requirements with consumers’ perceptions toward the brand logo is very important. Ibrahim et al. (2012) stressed that a logo is the most significant visual element; be it in a form of a symbol or a logotype or a combination of the two, since it aids the consumers in recognising the brand. The recognisable logo design specification guideline (RLDSG) is introduce to help the graphic designers and the new startup brands to create an effective logo that would enable the deliverance of the message via the visual of the brand logo itself about its brand products or services.
Hence, it contains of a design guideline for the designer during designing a logo, as it will create positive affect in easing the process of recognising the logo. It explores and investigates the typography physical categories and logo design elements. As mentioned before by 3 2 typography is important in logo designs as a significant factor for a person to remember a logo .The consumers’ emotion would be in between of typography physical categories and logo design element, where emotions are used as an approach to evaluate the emotional impact towards both of the element based on logo design visual perception by using eight basic emotions as suggested by researcher. 6 , used these emotional attributions for the article about evaluation on how do people really feel about a brand. The article by 6 , stated that the emotions are divided into two, which are positive and another negative emotion based on the Wheel of Emotion (WE). Over the years of studying emotions, Dr. Robert Plutchik, an American psychologist, suggested that there are eight primary emotions or basic emotions that serve as the foundation for all others: joy, sadness, acceptance, disgust, fear, anger, surprise, and anticipation 8 . Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions (PWE) are separated into three parts namely, primary, intensity, and relation (Donaldson, 2017). They contributed to fulfill and become the recognisable logo design requirements. By integrating all these elements, it would fulfill the requirements of logo design and increase the probability of it becoming a recognisable logo design
2.1 Development of Reconisable Logo Design Guideline
Logo design was emphasised from two variables requirement, which incorporated the typography physical categories (TPc) and logo design element (LDe) elements. The elements were identified from expert survey and during a logo appraisal by the consumers used in creating a new logo. The two variables originated from experts and they believed that the typography physical categories played vital role to give an impact from consumer emotions as a way to promote the startup brands. Then, the evaluation conducted by consumers’ emotions used the eight (8) basic emotions approaches.
The aim was to design the recognisable logo design for startup brands, based on the user preferences and requirements. Graphic designers and marketers would later use the integration of typography physical categories and logo design element in the design process stage when developing a new logo. Hence, typology of logo design (TLD) were found after determining the logo design characteristics, either which one of the typology will suitable used for from the five (5) typologies.
To strengthen a logo design specification that could contribute to Recognisable Logo Design (RLD) for startup brands, designers should ensure that the logo design would have all five (5) principles, which are memorable, timeless, simple, versatile, and appropriate after adapting the element before. Logo Design Requirement (LDR) needs to be applied to achieve the Recognisable Logo Design specification (RLD) for startup brands. Therefore, twenty one elements have been identified in recognisable logo design requirement, and several of the categories were outlined by9 10 11 12 13 14 2
Figure 2.0 shows the detailed process for logo design specification. The figure explains on the logo design framework as a decision factor in identifying the priority elements of logo design that fulfills the consumers’ preferences and contributes to the recognisable logo requirement. Figure 3.0 the formula representing the recognisable logo design requirements
Logo design principle (LDP) is an attribute to determine the recognition of logo design; it is based on the all requirements discussed earlier. The integration of typography physical categories (TPc) and logo design element (LDe) could be use by graphic designers or marketers in the design process stage when developing a new logo. Consumers’ emotions on the logo perception must be incorporated with the process on logo design characteristics (LDC) to determine a recognisable logo design specification (RLD). Towards the end, selected logo design requirements (LDR) should contribute to recognisable and successful brand logo perceptions.
The investigation was conducted involving a logo from Pos Malaysia to elaborate a logo criteria and recognisable factors of logo. It was supposed to meet the consumer requirements and preferences contributed from the design guideline that was introduced. The logo was selected based on the brand or services reputation and not only locally but also globally in the markets since the brand or services were introduced until present. Through the years, Pos Malaysia grew from strength to strength and has developed from being a mail and postal services provider to becoming an energetic communications, financial services and supply chain solutions provider. This postal network system will continue to evolve and revolutionise with the aim of maintaining its significance and competitive edge while continuing to unite Malaysians with the rest of the world.
The new identity of Pos Malaysia symbolises the brand; for today and tomorrow. The postal service transformation is expressed by the new design for the letter “O” in Pos. This has been done to connote “moving forward” towards being a successful chain postal service in Malaysia. The “fast forward” arrow signifies the brand’s progressive, innovative and forward thinking while also representing a strong digital association
Results And Discussion
Figure 4.0 is a preference was from an example through new brand logo from Pos Malaysia which was released in 2015. The logo was selected as the investigation from statistics showed Pos Malaysia is the most chosen brand that Malaysians preferred as the nation’s postal service through the years (The Star Online, 2016).
The verification process was discussed about typography physical categories and logo design elements are determined from the logo design. Pos Malaysia logo design was a combination logo that has several elements of typography physical categories combined with a symbol of the “Fast Forward” arrow. The logo was integrated with logo design elements such as the use of the circle in the middle to replace the capital “O” and two colours were used which are red and blue on the “POS” and “MALAYSIA” inspired from Malaysia’s flag colours, will introducing to other countries.
Hence, this verification on the Pos Malaysia logo also showed the logo design characteristic based on the consumer emotions toward the logo design requirements and preferences to achieve a recognisable logo design. After all, the principle of logo design will meet to determine the effective logo design requirement to be a recognisable logo design in giving good impact to the brand perceptions among consumers.
Table 1.0 shows the guideline for recognisable logo design. Five very necessary elements from typography physical categories and logo design element were identified as logo design characteristic assessed from the Pos Malaysia brand logo design. The highest priority of typography physical categories and element of logo design was applied on the Pos Malaysia logo. Next, to ensure that the logo design was recognised by consumer perception, the logo must fulfill the principle of logo design to meet the recognisable logo design requirement. The formula indicated the recognisable Pos Malaysia logo specification indicated as below
This paper has been carried out through a detailed analysis and a scientific study in developing a new Recognisable Logo Design Specification Guideline (RLDSG). RLDSG is a design guideline aimed to establish the recognisable logo design that is incorporated with consumers’ emotions evaluation through the logo design perceptions. The development of a new design guideline acknowledged as Recognisable Logo Design Specification Guideline (RLDSG) is successful implemented. The method is a process that incorporated the variables of typography in the logo design element with emotions involve, which is an attempt to increase the to recognisable and successful brand logo perceptions in the market. Through this method, the logo designer and marketers can verify and establish the recognisable logo design requirements in the early stages of the logo design process.