Education And Language

The Effect of Responsibility and Leadership on Job Performance of High School at North Jakarta

hari hamri, Moch. Asmawi, Unifah Rasyid,
Article Date Published : 25 July 2019 | Page No.: EL-2019-1071-1077 | Google Scholar

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the influence of corporate responsibility, leadership and discipline on job performance. This research used a quantitative approach with survey method. The sample of this research is the whole 120 teachers in High School at North Jakarta is done randomly. The results of the research showed that(1) there is a positive direct influence on responsibility for performance; (2) there is a positive direct effect of leadership on performance; (3) there is a positive direct influence on responsibility for leadership; (4) there is a positive indirect effect of responsibility for performance through leadership. To improve performance, it is necessary to increase responsibility, and leadership.


 


Keywords: Responsibility, Leadership, Job Performance


 

Keywords: Responsibility, Leadership, Job Performance

Background

The performance of teachers in North Jakarta Public High Schools must always be improved to produce quality education quality. Having a teacher who performs well, will have implications for the learning process in the classroom in educating students, which in turn can improve the quality of students. Likewise, conversely, teachers who perform poorly will have an impact on the quality of students.Therefore improving teacher performance can be supported by several factors such as teachers must have responsibility in work, leadership of school principals. Based on the initial survey, it was found that there were several problems related to the performance of North Jakarta High School teachers including;

Not being able to optimally develop teaching materials properly, teaching materials only focus on teaching material books so that the teacher does not have the ability to adapt teaching materials and teaching materials according to the needs of students, not according to the conditions of students and not in accordance with work life.

Other problems that arise, teachers have not optimally designed teaching materials well, do not develop their creativity and even seem to only focus on completing teaching material. Not evaluating student learning methods, not paying attention to how to teach well related to the application of teaching approaches and methods, not understanding the ability of students to receive teaching material, and not paying attention to students' ability to understand teaching material so that mastery and understanding of teaching material for students is not optimal.

Furthermore, the lack of optimal teacher performance can also be seen from the quality of work shown by North Jakarta High School teachers. This can be seen that the teacher is often late in teaching in the classroom, often completing teaching before the time is over, even not paying attention to class conditions and the readiness of students to receive teaching materials. Even though paying attention to the readiness of students in receiving teaching material is very important to see the effectiveness of teaching in the classroom.

Furthermore, the problem that arises when researchers conduct surveys in the field is that teachers only complete their main tasks as teaching staff in the classroom, only focus on students' cognitive abilities and pay little attention to aspects of student character so that some students are still involved in brawls between students.

The teacher has not yet carried out a self evaluation of his performance so that every year the method of teaching, the method used, and the approach applied are always the same from year to year so that it has implications for students' ability to receive teaching material. Still assuming that the main goal of the teacher is only teaching in the classroom, completing teaching material in the classroom is a necessity so that it does not pay attention to other aspects that can affect the quality of learning. This is the reason why the learning process in the classroom seems monotonous and uninteresting.

Literature Review

Performance

Basically performance is the level of achievement of the implementation of teacher duties based on their authority and responsibility. To achieve good performance is certainly not an easy thing. This is due to the number of things or aspects that affect the level of performance of a teacher, both in terms of organizational mechanisms, group mechanisms, individual characteristics, and individual mechanisms. According to Sony and Mekoth (2016)[1] that "performance, in general, refers to behavior that is relevant to organizational goals and under individual control".

While Melanie Ohme and Zacher (2015)[2] that “Performance is one of the most important results in the context of work, it has been defined as a measurable ability of work behavior that is under control and contributes to organizational goals". Wibowo (2012)[3] "performance comes from the word performance, so performance is interpreted as a result of work or work performance". Gibson, Ivancevich, Donelly, and Konopaske (2012)[4] suggest that "performance is results from work associated with organizational goals such as service quality, efficiency, and other effectiveness criteria".

According to Colquitt (2011)[5] that "performance is formally defined as values ​​summarized in teacher behavior both positive and negative to achieve organizational goals". Colquitt also added three dimensions of performance, namely: (1) task performance (taskperformance), (2) voluntary behavior (citizenshipbehavior) as a contribution to positive behavior, and (3) counter productive behavior (counterproductive) as a contribution to negative behavior.

According to Ghani, et.al, (2016[6]) that "performance is one of the important elements that provide goals and methods to achieve the organization's mission ". According to Mohamad and Jais (2016) [7]that "performance is the total value expected of individuals in carrying out a job. In addition, each individual has the quality and quantity of work. This shows that individual performance is largely determined by motivation and desires and the ability to do work ". Although the leaders must take corrective action to restore it if there is an imbalance between the established work standards and the level of work achieved. Shane and Glinow (2010)[8] assume that "performance refers to behavior that is directed towards achieving goals in control individual to achieve organizational goals". Performance is very important in organization, (Onsardi, 2018)[9].

Performance is the activity of the teacher directed at the implementation of organizational tasks caused to him. The direction of behavior is carried out through work references in the form of work objectives. This can take the form of regulations, descriptions of basic tasks and work functions, and direction and authority of the organization. thus achieving goals through various directives is the expectation of the teacher's level of achievement.

Based on some of the above concepts can be synthesized performance is the total value expected to individuals in carrying out a work based on the targets and criteria that have been set with indicators (1) the results of effective and efficient work, (2) have quality and quantity in work, (3) achievement of achievement of work objectives, (4) ability to do work, (5) increase the academic value of students, and (6) achieve organizational goals.

Responsibility

Responsibility is another term of responsibility. Responsibility is an action that is very important to do in everyday life because without responsibility, then everything will be chaotic. However responsibility becomes something very important in his main life in the world of education. According to Mergler and Shield (2016)[10] that "the responsibility is determined based on causality (what has been done) and hope (what should have been done)".

Meanwhile according to Robbins and Cuolter (2012)[11] that the responsibility is an obligation or expectation to do each task given. The responsibility that has been given is certainly in accordance with the expectations that have been set so as to maximize the tasks that have been given. Likewise according to Helker and Wosnitza (2016)[12] that "responsibility is seen as an individual quality, which is reflected in the realization and emotional experience needed to do a job and readiness to realize responsible behavior". Whereas according to Daft (2010)[13]that “responsibility is an obligation to carry out tasks or activities that have been set. Onsardi, et al. (2017)[14] responsibility is important role to improving employee performance and organizational performance. The teacher must be responsible for all his attitudes, behavior and actions in order to foster the soul and character of the students". Thus, the teacher's responsibility is to shape students to become capable moral persons, useful for religion, religion, and nation in the future.

In line with the above Moorhead (2007)[15] also said that " responsibility is an obligation to do something in the hope of achieving some action or output". One form of responsibility of a teacher is to provide an effective learning process and each educational unit to be held interactively, inspiring, fun, challenging, motivating students to actively participate, and providing sufficient space for initiative, creativity, and independence according to talent, interest and physical and psychological development of students. Furthermore, Newstroom and Davis (2002)[16] also say that " responsibility is an attitude of self-discipline for team performance in the same way to members so that they can be disciplined. So that responsibility is part of the civic disposition and part of the value and character education that must be developed in the learning process ".

Another case according to Schermerhorn (2010)[17] that "in the definition explained that a sense of responsibility, the pursuit of excellence, self-control is also a form of sense of responsibility". So that the responsibility is not only the completeness of a job but also more embedded in the issue of character and awareness of the main awareness of a teacher in improving the quality of education.

In line with these definitions Mudlofir (2012)[18] also said that "responsibility in developing the teaching profession is basically a demand and a call to always love, appreciate, maintain and improve the duties and responsibilities of the profession". Responsibility is part of an appropriate and effective way of making decisions, it should mean setting the best choices within the boundaries of social norms and commonly given expectations, to enhance positive human relations.

Teacher competency can be interpreted that the teacher basically must have competence in him which is the overall knowledge, skills, expertise and basic values ​​reflected in the habit of thinking and acting to carry out tasks in the field of education which includes teaching, guiding, educating, and evaluating student learning outcomes both academically and non-academically with full responsibility.

In line with the statement above according to Verderber in Mulyana (2011)[19] it was explained that "the decision-making function, which is deciding to do or not do something at a certain time". In decision making it is closely related to the attitude of responsibility because the results of these decisions will certainly provide an effect in the world of education. With this attitude of responsibility can improve achievement in school, as well as learning requires great personal responsibility.

Responsibility is human awareness of intentional or unintentional behavior or actions. Responsibility/responsibility concerns the implementation of public organization activities in accordance with administrative principles that are correct or in accordance with organizational policies both explicitly and implicitly. The management objectives of a responsible organization are used to check whether service standards are correct, and how these standards are immediately implemented properly. Thus the responsibility is related to the implementation of an evaluation of the standard implementation of the activity whether the standards made are appropriate to the situation and conditions faced, and if it is deemed appropriate, then management has the responsibility to implement these standards.

Based on the study of various concepts, it can be synthesized that responsibility is to always carry out every task and obligation carried out seriously and correctly / correctly, with indicators (1) the obligation to carry out the assigned tasks or activities, (2) readiness to realize responsible behavior, (3) improving tasks and professions, (4) following applicable rules and procedures, and (5) developing the teaching profession.

Leadership

Leadership is a topic that attracts many people and is defined in many ways. According to Elbaz and Haddoud (2017)[20] that "leadership is an important and dynamic component in realizing organizational satisfaction and performance. Effective leadership is seen as the beginning of job satisfaction, and as a vital factor for organizational success ". While according to Daft (2008)[21] that " leaders and led must have the same goal. Problems of relationship and influence between leaders and those who are led".

Leadership arises and develops as a result of automatic interactions between leaders and individuals led. According to Shane and Glinow (2010) that "leadership is closely related to how to influence, motivate, and allow other people to contribute to success organization". Leaders who have special skills so that they can influence the group they lead, to conduct joint ventures lead to the achievement of certain goals. Leadership is an ability to influence groups towards achieving goals.

According to Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matteson (2008)[22] that “leadership have influence in determining a rule something organization so that produce effects that meaningful and has a direct impact on achieving organizational goals". Leadership can also be interpreted as a result of a social organization that has been formed or as a result of dynamics rather than social interaction. Since the beginning of the formation of a social group, a person or a number of people among their citizens have a more active role than their peers, so that the person or some people appear more prominent than others.

A leader may have a variety or more than one power inherent in him, whose essence can be used to control quality or leadership according to his authority. According to Gibson et al (2012)[4] that "leadership is part of efforts to use the influence to motivate individual to achieving goals certain. An action carried out by individuals or groups to coordinate and give direction to other individuals or groups incorporated in a particular container to achieve predetermined goals".

In line with the definition Colquitt et.al (2009)[23] also said that “use power and influence for direct lead headed achievement of goals. The process by which a person or leader influences followers in ways that do not force them to achieve a goal ". A person must have the skills and strengths, especially the excess skills in one field so that he is able to influence other people to jointly carry out certain activities, in order to achieve one or several goals.

In line with the statement, Yukl (2001)[24] also defines the meaning of leadership according to him "leadership is in accordance with its individual perspective and aspects of the symptoms that most interest him, after conducting an in-depth review of the leadership literature". Leadership is power to influence someone, good inside do something or not do something, subordinates are led from not by telling or driving from behind. The leader integrates the needs of his subordinates with the needs of the organization and the needs of the learner as a whole.

According to Player et.al, (2017)[25] that "effective leadership can realize the school's vision, provide support to teachers, improve teacher performance and enforce rules". Certain leadership will greatly influence the leadership style, namely leaders who carry out their leadership functions with all their philosophy, skills and attitudes. Furthermore, according to Pina, et.al (2015)[26] that "leadership can directly affect schools, classroom conditions and teachers, which in turn can affect ́ indirect learning conditions of students". The leader can focus on interpersonal relationships. In this case, it includes mutual trust, respecting subordinate ideas, building cooperation, being sensitive to the needs and welfare of subordinates. A leader must have their own character and traits which are the characteristics of leadership. If a leader accepts the obligation to achieve a goal. Means being willing to be accountable to their leaders for what their subordinates do. Here must be able to overcome the organization he leads. Almost all leaders feel that their work demands a lot of effort and knowledge to be able to run effectively.

Based on the explanation above, it can be synthesized that leadership is a process to influence subordinates as a form of legitimacy formally in achieving organizational goals, with indicators (1) directing, (2) motivating, (3) having work productivity, (4) influencing, (5) contribute to organizational success and (6) enforce rules.

Research method

The method in this study is a survey that will be analyzed using path analysis. The questionnaires used to obtain research data consisted of three variables, namely: responsibility (X1), leadership (X2), and teacher performance (Y).

Inferential analysis uses path analysis. This research was conducted in North Jakarta State High School in the sample in this study amounted to 120 people. But before using path analysis, the analysis requirements test was carried out first, namely the normality test, significance test, and linearity. Whereas to calculate the path coefficient using the correlation coefficient of each causal relationship.

Results and Discussion of Research

The results obtained after conducting a model analysis are used as a basis in answering hypotheses and drawing conclusions in this study. Explanation of the answers to these hypotheses can be described as follows:

Positive Direct Effect of Responsibility (X 1 ) on Performance (Y)

The results of the analysis of the first hypothesis resulted in the finding that responsibility has a direct positive effect on performance. From the data of the calculation for the preparation of the regression equation model between the performance and responsibility in appendix 5, the regression constants a = 89.34 and the regression coefficient b = 0.31. Thus the relationship between the simple regression equation model is Ŷ = 89.34 + 0.31X1. Before the regression equation model is further analyzed and used to draw conclusions, first test the significance and linearity of the regression equation.

Regression equation Ŷ = 89.34 + 0.31X1, for the significance test obtained F count 24.71 greater than F table (0.05; 1: 118) 3.92 at α = 0.05. Because F count> F table, the regression equation is stated to be very significant. For the linearity test obtained F count of 0.98 smaller than F table (0.05; 29: 89) of 1.59 at α = 0.05. Because F counttable, the distribution of estimated points forms a linear line can be accepted.

Based on these findings it can be concluded that performance is directly influenced positively by responsibility. Increasing responsibility will result in improved performance. The demands of a teacher's responsibility indicate the level of work completion and the quality of work results that lead to the creation of efficiency and effectiveness in completing work so that it can improve teacher performance. The results of these studies are in accordance with the statement of Goetsch and Davis (2010)[27] that "Responsibility is a character trait expected in improving performance".

Positive Direct Effect of Leadership (X 2 ) on Performance (Y)

The results of the second hypothesis analysis yield findings that leadership has a direct positive effect on performance. From the calculation data for the preparation of the regression equation model between performance and leadership in appendix 5, the regression constants a = 92.72 and the regression coefficient b = 0.27. Thus the relationship of the simple regression equation model is Ŷ = 92.72 + 0.27 X2. Before the regression equation model is further analyzed and used to draw conclusions, first test the significance and linearity of the regression equation.

Regression equation Ŷ = 92.72 + 0.27X2, for the significance test obtained F count 23.81 greater than F table (0.05; 1: 118) 3.92 at α = 0.05. Because F count> F table, the regression equation is stated to be very significant. For the linearity test obtained F count of 1.42 smaller than F table (0.05; 32: 86) of 1.58 at α = 0.05. Because F counttable, the distribution of estimated points forms a linear line can be accepted.

Based on these findings it can be concluded that performance is directly influenced positively by leadership. Increasing leadership will lead to increased performance. The results of this study are in line with the opinions of several experts including;

According to Schermerhorn (2010)[28] that "leadership emphasizes setting challenging goals, emphasizing excellence in performance, and demonstrating confidence in the ability of group members to achieve higher standards of performance. According to Gibson (2012) that "the importance of effective leadership to get the performance of individuals, groups and organizations". Leadership influences performance.

Positive Dir ect Effect of Responsibility (X 1 ) on Leadership (X 2 )

The results of the sixth hypothesis analysis provide findings that responsibility has a direct positive effect on leadership. The path coefficient value of responsibility for leadership is 0.208 with a calculated t value of 2.32. Because the coefficient of t count is greater than the value of t table at dk = 118 for α = 0.05 at 1.98, H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted, which means there is a positive direct effect of the responsibility variable on the leadership variable which is very significant.

Based on these findings it can be concluded that leadership is directly influenced positively by responsibility. Increasing responsibility will lead to increased leadership. The results of this study are in line with the opinion of Knights, et al. (2016)[29] that " leadership will not be achieved well, if there is no effort to improve itself and not have a sense of responsibility".

Positive Indir ect Impact of Responsibility (X 1 ) on Perfor mance (Y) through Leadership (X 2 )

The indirect effect of responsibility for performance through leadership is the product of three path coefficients, namely: the path coefficient of responsibility to leadership (β21). The amount of indirect influence responsibility for performance through leadership is: (0.208) (0.243) = 0.013. So that the influence of total responsibility on performance is 0.294 through leadership.

Responsibility indirectly influences teacher performance through leadership. So that the ideal leadership is to have a sense of responsibility so that it can improve teacher performance. According to Knights, et, al, (2016) says that "if leaders fail to understand that leadership is about interpretation, there is a greater tendency for them to be individualistic so that the leadership process is problematic because leaders become busy building their own image rather than their roles and responsibilities towards those they lead".

Conclusion

This study is intended to look for factors that can influence the performance of teachers in North Jakarta State Senior High School including responsibility, and leadership. Based on the results of the statistical hypothesis test and discussion, the research produces the following:

  • Responsibility has a positive direct effect on the performance of teachers in North Jakarta State High School. This shows that if responsibility is carried out properly it will result in increased performance.

  • Leadership has a direct positive effect on performance teacher in North Jakarta State High School . This shows that if the leadership is run well it will result in increased performance.

  • Responsibility has a positive direct effect on leadership of teachers in North Jakarta State High School . This shows that if responsibility is carried out properly it will lead to increased leadership.

  • Responsibility has a positive indirect effect on the performance of teachers in North Jakarta State High School . It was concluded that leadership can mediate the effect of responsibility on performance. This is to be able to improve performance so responsibility to improve leadership before improving performance.

Recommendation

Based on the empirical findings obtained from this study, researchers presented several suggestions for the influence of responsibility, and leadership on teacher performance in North Jakarta Public High School, as follows.

  • The condition of responsibility should be improved because it proves to have a positive direct effect on the performance of teachers at North Jakarta State High School. The weakest aspect in responsibility is the obligation to carry out assigned tasks or activities , so that it needs to be improved.

  • The leadership condition should be improved because it is proven to have a positive direct effect on the teacher's performance in North Jakarta State High School . The weakest aspect in leadership is enforcing the rules, so it needs to be corrected.

  • The weakest aspect in the teacher's performance at North Jakarta Public High School is that the work is effective and efficient, so it needs to be improved.

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Article Details


Issue: Vol 7 No 07 (2019)
Page No.: EL-2019-1071-1077
Section: Education And Language
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v7i7.el01

How to Cite

hamri, hari, Asmawi, M., & Rasyid, U. (2019). The Effect of Responsibility and Leadership on Job Performance of High School at North Jakarta. International Journal of Scientific Research and Management, 7(07), EL-2019. https://doi.org/10.18535/ijsrm/v7i7.el01

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