https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/issue/feed International Journal of Scientific Research and Management 2018-10-17T08:07:58+00:00 Mr. Mahendra Patidar editor@ijsrm.in Open Journal Systems <h2><strong>International Journal of Scientific Research and Management </strong></h2> <p>IJSRM is a online&nbsp;open&nbsp;access journal that publishes articles in the field of&nbsp;Computer Science, Engineering, medical science, social science, economics, clinical research, mathematics, education,&nbsp;bio science, science, Management&nbsp;&amp; Arts . It is an international journal to encourage research&nbsp;publication to&nbsp;research&nbsp;scholars, academicians,&nbsp;professionals and students engaged in their respective field. The journal also provides an international forum to disseminate their knowledge.</p> <p>Our mission is to advance research by working to develop and maintain competence, ethics and integrity and the highest professional standards in the specialty for the benefit of the public. The Faculty seeks, through its activities, to bring about an improvement in research of the public.</p> <p><strong>Editorial Policy</strong></p> <p>Authors should prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions given in the authors' guidelines. Manuscripts which do not conform to the format and style of the Journal may be returned to the authors for revision or rejected. The Journal reserves the right to make any further formal changes and language corrections necessary in a manuscript accepted for publication so that it conforms to the formatting requirements of the Journal.</p> <p><strong>Important notice</strong></p> <p>Authors can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to editor@ijsrm.in&nbsp;</p> <p>All manuscripts are subject to rapid peer review. Those of high quality (not previously published and not under consideration for publication in another journal) will be published without delay. First-time users are required to register themselves as an author before making submissions by signing up the author registration form at journals website</p> <p>With the online journal management system that we are using, authors will be able to track manuscripts progress through the editorial process by logging in as author in authors Dashboard.</p> <p><strong>Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></p> <p><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong>&nbsp;The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</p> <p><strong>Very Low Publication Fees:</strong>&nbsp;Comparable journals charge a huge sum for each accepted manuscript. IJSRM only charge the fees necessary to recoup cost associated with running the journal</p> <p><strong>Areas Covered:</strong>&nbsp;Multidisciplinary</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1816 Contribution of Entrepreneurship Pedagogy Learning Model with Production-Based Learning Approach to Entrepreneurs Learning Outcomes in Vocational Higher Education 2018-10-16T16:17:16+00:00 Hendra Hidayat hendrahidayatmpd@gmail.com Asmar Yulastri hendrahidayatmpd@gmail.com Ganefri . hendrahidayatmpd@gmail.com Diana Sriwahyuni hendrahidayatmpd@gmail.com Ali Akmal Zoni hendrahidayatmpd@gmail.com <p>The purpose of this study is to describe and test the contribution of entrepreneurship learning pedagogy models with a production-based learning approach to entrepreneurial learning outcomes. This study uses quantitative methods with descriptive correlational. The population was all students who participated in the 2300 people general entrepreneurship courses in higher education, and a sample of 423 students were selected using proportional stratified random sampling. This research tool is a test of entrepreneurial learning outcomes that have been measured for validity and reliability. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and simple regression. The findings of the study show that there is a contribution to the entrepreneurship learning pedagogy model with a production-based learning approach to entrepreneurial learning outcomes in vocational higher education<strong>.</strong></p> 2018-10-04T14:27:51+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1811 Inappropriate Strategies That Senior High School Students Use When Solving Routine Problems in Basic Algebra 2018-10-16T16:17:15+00:00 Patrick Kwabena Amoakoh akwesiamoah2003@yahoo.com <p>The purpose of the study was to identify the inappropriate strategies that senor high school students used when solving routine problems in basic algebra. The study was conducted with second year students of Eguafo Senior High School, Edinaman Senior High School and Komenda Secondary Technical School; all situated in the Central Region of Ghana. The data used in the analysis were collected form 120 students of the various programmes in the Senior High School. The simple random sampling method was used in the selection of the sample and the descriptive sample survey was the research design used. Essay type achievement tests and interview were used in the data collection. The test involved 20 independent test items under 10 routine problems in basic algebra. The test items were carefully selected from various Senior High School Mathematics text books and WAEC past questions under the supervision of the supervisor.</p> <p>Students were assembled in their classrooms for the administration of the tests. The tests were administered during official school hours. A total of thirty students, ten from each school were interviewed individually on their solutions to the test items. The failure strategies identified were observed to have comprised one or some combinations of a number of errors classified into six types as follows: a. Sign Errors, Misconception, Slip-shod Errors, Misapplication of RulesComputational Errors and Miscellaneous Errors. It was recommended that textbook authors in their text books should caution students on the possible common mistakes students make with each topic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-10-04T14:31:37+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1814 Understanding of Chemicai Formulae And Nomenclature Of Inorganic Compounds Using Improvised Conceptual Models Among Teacher-Trainees In Offinso And Atebubu Colleges Of Education In Ghana 2018-10-16T16:17:14+00:00 Bilatam Peter Mayeem akwesiamoah2003@yahoo.com Anna M. Naah editor@ijsrm.in Augustine Adjei editor@ijsrm.in <p>The study aimed at enhancing the understanding of SHS students in chemical formulae and nomenclature using locally constructed conceptual models. It was carried out in Offinso and Atebubu Colleges of Education. The research instrument used was pretest and protest on an experimental and control group with 200 students as sample size. Developmental research design with cluster and purposive sampling techniques were employed. Five research questions were formulated out of which four were modified into null hypothesis and was tested using 2-tailed t-test at 0.05 level of significance. The research results have showed that the use of conceptual models enhanced the understanding of Teacher-trainees in chemical formulae and nomenclature. Additionally, it was found out that the conceptual models had no influence on gender or cognitive capability. This emphasized that conceptual models should be used to assist the teaching and learning of chemical formulae and nomenclature.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-10-04T14:40:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1819 A Study on Adapting of Afghan Students in Universities of Turkey 2018-10-17T08:07:55+00:00 Ahmad Jawid Muradi jawid.muradi@gmail.com Ismet BOZ editor@ijsrm.in Mirwas AZAMI editor@ijsrm.in <p>The aim of the study is to propose a solution by examining the adaptation problems experienced by the Afghan students who are studying in different faculties and departments of various universities of Turkey. The survey based on the primary data collected by online sampling method and 60 different questions from Afghan students studying in Turkey by August 2017. In the analysis of the obtained data, SPSS version 21.0 program was used and parametric and nonparametric analysis techniques applied in the direction of research findings. The survey has been done in 49 various universities, 12 different faculties, and 161 students. Among the participants 39.1% had scholarships from the Turkish government (YTB), 26.7% were supported by the Afghanistan government, and 34.2% were studying by their own financial possibilities. All of the students came from Afghanistan for education purposes. Their parents' economic and educational levels are good; nearly all of them are well-educated people. Most of the students are living in dormitories, and they are happy to study in Turkey. They don't have any problems with interpersonal relationships and cultural adaptation with other students in dorms, as well as with people in Turkey.</p> 2018-10-10T06:28:22+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1786 Influence of Cultural Factors on Pupil’s Transition from Primary to Secondary Schools in Laikipia West Sub-County, Kenya 2018-10-17T08:07:54+00:00 Mr. Peter Murage Mwangi pmurage70@gmail.com Prof. Kanjogu J. editor@ijsrm.in Dr. Ngunjiri, M. editor@ijsrm.in <p>From 2017, the government of Kenya aimed at attaining 100 percent transition rate of pupils from primary to secondary schools. In Laikipia West Sub-County whose primary schools are focused by the study, transition from primary to secondary schools averaged at 54.9% from 2008 to 2015. Cultural factors are highlighted in literature as to undermine transition of pupils from primary to secondary schools. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which cultural factors influence pupils’ transition from primary to secondary schools in Laikipia West Sub-county in Kenya. Using ex-post facto research design, data was collected using self-delivered questionnaire from a target population of 1064 respondents. The study was carried out on a randomly sampled population of 411 respondents, composed of 280 teachers and 131 PTA chairpersons in public primary schools in the area of study. Data was analyzed using simple regression at .05 alpha level. Findings from the study revealed that cultural factors were significantly influencing transition of pupils from primary to secondary schools (β= - .790) at 0.5 significance level. The study recommended that local leaders should organize for civic education in order to address the identified transition challenges so as to attain a 100% rate of progression to secondary schools.</p> 2018-10-10T06:37:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1803 Influence of Tax Knowledge and Awareness on Tax Compliance Among Investors in the Export Processing Zones in Kenya 2018-10-16T16:17:20+00:00 Obongo Matibe Bernard bmatibe@gmail.com Dr. Florence S. Memba smemba@jkuat.ac.ke Dr. Oluoch Oluoch joluoch@jkuat.ac.ke <p>The objective of this study was to examine the influence of tax knowledge &amp; awareness on tax compliance among Export Processing Zones investors in Kenya. This research used a cross sectional survey research design. The study population comprised of 152 duly registered and licensed firms by the Export Processing Zones Authority.&nbsp; Since all the registered investors in the three Kenyan Cities were considered for the study, a census sampling technique was employed. Primary data was gathered using structured questionnaires and captured through a 5-point type Likert Scale questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in the analysis of data. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), multiple regression and correlation analysis was carried out to test the hypothesis. The study established that a significant number of organizations put emphasis on employee training geared at improving their tax knowledge and awareness, thus facilitating tax compliance. The study findings revealed that tax knowledge &amp; awareness has a very close relationship with taxpayers’ ability to understand the laws and regulations of taxation, and their ability to comply with them. It was therefore possible to conclude that firms with well-trained employees on tax issues had a high likelihood of complying voluntarily with tax laws and regulations. The study also led to a conclusion that tax knowledge and awareness had a positive and significant relationship with tax compliance. The study recommends that the Revenue Authorities should embark on public awareness campaigns to educate the public and investors on their role and responsibilities in taxation rather than approaching the matter from a legal obligation perspective. This will create a sense of responsibility in compliance rather than fear for non-compliance. Putting in place active customer oriented information desks as well as client feedback mechanisms is also a necessary tool of increasing tax compliance. Further, more robust measures should be adopted in educating the public and investors on the tax issues and policies through regular training programmes, media advertisements, workshops and seminars.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong><em>Tax Compliance, Tax Knowledge &amp; Awareness, Export Processing Zones</em></p> 2018-10-04T13:30:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1812 Analysis of Onion Marketing Structure in Yola North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria 2018-10-16T16:17:19+00:00 Muhammad Auwal Ahmed auwalyounky@gmail.com Abdulazeez Idris editor@ijsrm.in Maurice David Chinda editor@ijsrm.in <p>This study analyzed the structure of onion marketing in Yola North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from Jimeta Modern market, Old market and Yola by-pass market based on the existing sampling frame. Descriptive statistics, Gini index and Marketing efficiency were the analytical tools employed. The results revealed that majority (92.5%) of the respondents were male, 62.5% were married with an average family size of 4 persons per household and 52.5% had some level of formal education with a mean marketing experience of 10 years. The average sales recorded per month for wholesalers and retailers were N2,888,000.00 and N372,237.50 respectively, while their respective net incomes per month were N234,610.00 and N35,743.73 respectively. The value of Gini coefficient for wholesalers and retailers were 0.47 and 0.52 respectively, an indication of inequality in earnings among the marketers due to high market concentration resulting to poor market structure. The results further revealed that onion marketing is inefficient in the study area with marketing efficiency scores of 8.82% and 10.62% for wholesalers and retailers respectively. The Return on Investment (ROI) for wholesalers and retailers were N0.081 and N0.096 respectively with retailers having relatively higher ROI. Lack of credit facilities (80%), high cost of transportation (73%) and security challenges (42.5%) were identified as the major problems affecting onion marketers in the area. The study recommends that government should expand its anchor borrower scheme program to include marketers in order to enable them expand their business and improve marketing efficiency.</p> 2018-10-04T13:37:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1804 Influence of Cost of Tax Compliance on Tax Compliance Among Investors in The Export Processing Zones in Kenya. 2018-10-16T16:17:17+00:00 Obongo Matibe Bernard bmatibe@gmail.com Dr. Florence S. Memba fmemba@jkuat.ac.ke Dr. Oluoch Oluoch jooluoch@jkuat.ac.ke <p>The objective of this study was to establish the influence of cost of tax compliance on tax compliance among the Export Processing Zones investors in Kenya. This research used a cross sectional survey research design. The study population comprised of 152 duly registered and licensed firms by the Export Processing Zones Authority.&nbsp; Since all the registered investors in the three Kenyan Cities were considered for the study, a census sampling technique was employed. Primary data was gathered using structured questionnaires and captured through a 5-point type Likert Scale questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in the analysis of data. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), multiple regression and correlation analysis was carried out to test the hypothesis. The study findings indicated that the cost of tax compliance influenced tax compliance to a great extent with a mean score of 4.02. This implies that tax compliance cost is a key determinant of tax compliance. Tax compliance costs play a key role in determining the level of a firm’s tax compliance. These costs include both direct and indirect costs such as auditing costs, costs of hiring tax personnel, agents &amp; experts, time taken to complete tax assessment &amp; returns filing as well as the accessing, employing and retaining knowledgeable staff; all for purposes of tax compliance. The study concludes that the cost of tax compliance is statistically significant in explaining tax compliance. The findings imply that taxpayers will comply more when tax compliance costs are lower and tax systems adequately simplified. The study recommends that governments and revenue authorities need to actively engage business enterprises through regular sensitizations on proper record keeping. Proper record keeping will facilitate; simplified tax preparations, returns filing, advance knowledge on tax laws and regulations as well as tax payments. Sensitization on basic tax calculation procedures is also key in the reduction of indirect costs associated with tax compliance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong><em>Tax compliance, Cost of Tax Compliance, Export Processing Zones.</em></p> 2018-10-04T14:08:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1818 The contribution of Agriculture Sector in the Economy of Afghanistan 2018-10-17T08:07:57+00:00 Ahmad Jawid Muradi jawid.muradi@gmail.com Ismet Boz editor@ijsrm.in <p>The purpose of this study is to identify the contribution of agriculture to the Afghanistan economy by examining the experience of 34 provinces as documented in commissioned case studies and various secondary sources (CSO directory, FAO reports, government publications, USAID reports, NGO reports, journals, and websites) for the period 2016 - 2017. Agriculture is the backbone of the Afghan economy, the contributions of agriculture to the country's gross demotic product (GDP) is 23% in 2017, while the labor force engaged in this sector is around 61.6%. The annual growth rate in Afghanistan is predictable 3.6%. Afghanistan produces organic fruits, nuts, grain, vegetables and livestock products including cashmere, skin, wool, and a significant amount of these commodities is moving towards the export market. Agriculture represents about one-quarter of national GDP and is the second largest sector after services. Over the 70 % of the population are poor living in rural areas, and agriculture plays a significant role in their livelihoods. The most Afghan farms are very small, and their productivity is low over the years that farmers produce to satisfy the food needs of their household, with limited agricultural production entering commercial marketing channels and the trade account deficit overall. The GDP including opium was US$ 20.3 billion with GDP per capita of US$ 697. The agricultural sector is entirely run by private enterprises, including farmers, cooperatives, input suppliers, herders, agribusiness processors, and exporters.</p> 2018-10-10T06:20:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1817 Structure and Marketing Opportunities on Dairy Farms in Konya Province, Turkey 2018-10-17T08:07:52+00:00 Ahmad Jawid Muradi jawid.muradi@gmail.com Cuma Akbay editor@ijsrm.in <p>The main problems encountered by Turkish dairy producers are the lower level of productivity and profitability, lack of specialization, cooperation, and have strong links with the characteristics of producers, agricultural systems and hygiene and disease control in dairy herds. The objectives of this study are to identify the dairy cattle production factors, household characteristics, and needs of milk for human life. The survey based on the primary data collected by stratified random sampling method in the dairy farms of Konya in August 2014. 92 dairy farms which are producing and selling milk Konya province was interviewed. The data collected through interviews, focus group and evaluated by using parametric and nonparametric tests. The means age of farmers was 47.4, the average of household members was 5.54, and the average number of members busy with dairy cattle was 2.05. The average number of milk cows per dairy cattle yield was 33.56 kg and daily milk yield per cow was 21.13 kg/day. On a lactation period, milk yield per cow was 5493.8 kg/head and the average lactation period was 260 days, and the results of ANOVA; average forage crop area was 78.92 decares and share of the forage crop area in total farm planting area is around 39%, there are positive and statistically relationship between farm size group and average forage crops.</p> 2018-10-10T07:02:50+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1834 An Examination of the Relationship between Perceived price Fairness on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Kenyan Star-Rated Restaurants 2018-10-17T08:07:50+00:00 Margaret Githiri githirim@yahoo.com <p>Perceived price fairness is an important predictor of relationship quality, trust, satisfaction and loyalty of customers visiting restaurants. Although several studies on customer satisfaction and loyalty have been done, little is still known about customer satisfaction and loyalty regarding perceived price fairness in Kenyan rated restaurants. The main objective of the study was therefore to examine the relationship between perceived price fairness on customers’ satisfaction and loyalty at rated restaurants in Nairobi and Coastal region. A cross sectional survey study was used in recording the information that is present in the population. Simple random sampling method was used in selecting 345 customers used in the study. The target population included all customers visiting the selected restaurants. Structured questionnaires were used in acquiring relevant information from customers. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (linear regression analysis) were used in analyzing the objective. The results indicated significant relationship between perceived price with satisfaction and return intention (p&lt; 0.05), leading to the rejection of the hypotheses.&nbsp; Majority of the customers were found to be satisfied with all dimensions of perceived price which implied that satisfaction of perceived price fairness led to return intention of customers in the rated restaurants. The study suggested that the restaurant managers should improve on both perceived value and price. They should also ensure that the set prices are not more than the prices of their competitors of the same standard. Investment on staff training was also suggested.</p> 2018-10-16T13:18:03+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1828 The The E-Learning Module Arrangement Budgeting Based on Activity-Based Budgeting Model (Case Study: The IT Enterprise in Jakarta) 2018-10-17T08:07:49+00:00 Wayan Santiasih 2214santi@gmail.com Nengzih . nengzih@mercubuana.ac.id <p><em>Budget is one of the management decision-making tools, from activities to finance. One of the budgeting model can be applied is an Activity-Based Budgeting (ABB) model. The objective of this research is to propose the application of the ABB model in IT Enterprise in Jakarta. The object in this research is budgeting for e-learning projects that carried out by IT Enterprise in Jakarta. In the present time, the budgeting model applied is included in the traditional budgeting system, namely the Incremental budgeting model, in which the budgeting is conducted based on the budget in the previous year therefore sometimes the information used is less accurate. This research shows the differences between the ABB model and the Incremental budgeting model, as well as the evaluation of the application of each model. This research is a qualitative research, with descriptive exploratory research type in a case study. Research data was obtained from face to face interviews, observation of activities and documentation. ABB modeling is carried out by detailing activities in e-learning projects including human resources used, then compiling employee costs for these activities. The results of ABB modeling show that ABB has capabilities to provide more accurate information about activities, costs for activities, work process time, amount of human resources needed, total employee costs and project profit / loss. It can be concluded that the ABB model can provides the budgeting model needs of IT Enterprise.</em></p> 2018-10-16T13:24:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1781 Woody species diversity, productivity and carbon stock potential of dry deciduous woodland in Alitash National Park, North West Ethiopia 2018-10-17T08:07:58+00:00 Amsalu Abich Andargie amsaluabcich@gmail.com Asmamaw Alemu Abtew asmamawalemu@yahoo.com Tadesse Mucheye Azagew tadie732000@gmail.com Mequanent Tebikew Asres mekuanttebkew@gmail.com Yohannis Gebremariam grima yohannisgirma@gmail.com <p>Dry woodlands provide multifunctional benefits which grouped socioeconomic and ecological values. Despite these advantageous while recently threatened, the status of dry woodland attribute is not well understood, particularly Alitash National Park (ANP). Hence, woody species diversity, productivity and carbon stock potential of ANP were studied. Based on the collected data, a total of 24 woody species were identified. The computed Shannon-Wiener's diversity and evenness index were 2.11 and 0.66, respectively which indicated that moderate diversity and individual species were sparsely distributed horizontally. The study site was dominated by few individuals of woody species that exhibited the highest value of IVI. Population structure pattern of woody species showed F shape indicates the first class exhibited good regeneration. Whereas, species in the second classes interrupted the seedling establishment phase and transformation to sapling stage as a result of disturbance caused by anthropogenic, grazing and frequent firing. Stand basal area, volume and AGB were 8.57 m<sup>2</sup>ha<sup>-1</sup>, 48.15 m<sup>3</sup>ha<sup>-1</sup> and 49.06 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The estimated carbon stock of the stand was 27.7 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>. In conclusion, the results of woody vegetation attributes showed ANP is affected negatively caused by different disturbance indicate the need of appropriate intervention and management system although ANP is protected.</p> 2018-10-06T12:14:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1821 Estimation of carbon stock in Bimbia Bonadikombo coastal community forest, south west region, Cameroon: an implication for climate change mitigation 2018-10-17T08:07:53+00:00 Longonje. N. Simon nlongonje@yahoo.com Roy , L. Mbua editor@ijsrm.in Etongwe Roger editor@ijsrm.in <p>Forests are known to play an important role in regulating the global climate. Nowadays, especially in developing countries wide spread deforestation and forest degradation is continuing unknowingly ad deliberately. This study was conducted to estimate carbon stock in undisturbed research section (Dikolo Penisula) of Bimbia Bonadikombo Community Forest (BBCF). Three transects were created in the research plot and fifteen plots of 10m x10m were laid systematically along each transects, and five &nbsp;sub plots of&nbsp; 1m x1m quadrats were&nbsp; laid within 10m x10m i.e.&nbsp; at the four corners and&nbsp; middle. &nbsp;Trees data (DBH≥2.5cm and Height) were measured in the 10x10m plots. Soil, litter herbs and grass data were collected in the 1x1 m plots.&nbsp; The litters, herbs and grass (LHG) were weighed on the field and evenly mixed and dried at 65<sup>0</sup>C, to determine dry biomass and percentage of carbon. Soil samples were collected at 30cm depth&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (between 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm depths) and density cups was used to determine bulk density and percentage (%) of organic carbon concentration. Allometric equations was use to obtain trees biomass and carbon stock. The results revealed that the total carbon stock was 38.61 t·ha<sup>-1</sup>. The Soil organic carbon (SOC) was 33.9 t·ha<sup>-1</sup> that is 87.8%, while the forest trees stored 2.91 t·ha<sup>-1 </sup>that is 7.5% of the total carbon. &nbsp;LHGs biomass contributed only1.82t·ha<sup>-1</sup> of carbon that is 4.7% of the total carbon stock. The result shows that BBCF is a reservoir of high carbon. To enhance sustainability of the forest potentiality, the carbon sequestration should be integrated with reduced emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD<sup>+</sup>) and clean development mechanism (CDM) carbon trading system of the Kyoto Protocol to get monetary benefit of CO<sub>2</sub> mitigation.</p> 2018-10-10T06:51:18+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/1790 Assessing The Nutritional Status Of Orphaned And Non- Orphaned Children Aged 6-59 Months In Kakamega County, Kenya. 2018-10-17T08:07:51+00:00 Mary Mutete Muema marymualuko@yahoo.com Edward Neyole marymualuko@yahoo.com Ruth Simiyu editor@ijsrm.in <p>Child malnutrition is globally the highest risk factor for illness and death. It contributes to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. Children who lose their parents may face many hardships including food insecurity and poor child care resulting into malnutrition. However, in Kenya and the entire sub-Saharan Africa the problem of orphan-hood is expected to increase in the coming years due to more deaths from HIV/AIDS and other disasters. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of orphaned and non-orphaned children. The study was a cross sectional study where both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. A structured questionnaire was administered to 306 care takers of orphans and non-orphans. The nutritional status of the children was determined by use of anthropometric measurements; weight for age (underweight), height for age (stunting) and weight for height (wasting) and pitting edema. Focus Group Discussions and key informant interviews were also conducted. Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Emergency Nutrition Assessment (ENA) were used to analyze the data. Pearson chi-square and t-test statistics were used to test the significance of the relations while ranking was used to compare proportions of occurrence. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in the County (stunting 28.5%, wasting 6.9% and underweight 9.5% with wasting being more pronounced in Kakamega North Sub County. Boys were found to be more vulnerable to underweight (p value =0.025) and children aged 30-41 months were more stunted (p=0.009). However study found that there was no association between child malnutrition and orphan hood and therefore the children had equal chances of becoming malnourished it is recommended that the county and national governments should formulate and implement policies targeting all the children regardless of their orphan hood status. The County Integrated Plans (CIDPs) and national government policies need to stipulate well the nutrition intervention plans for the county.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2018-10-10T07:11:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##