International Journal of Scientific Research and Management https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm <h2><strong>International Journal of Scientific Research and Management </strong></h2> <p>IJSRM is a online&nbsp;open&nbsp;access journal that publishes articles in the field of&nbsp;Computer Science, Engineering, medical science, social science, economics, clinical research, mathematics, education,&nbsp;bio science, science, Management&nbsp;&amp; Arts . It is an international journal to encourage research&nbsp;publication to&nbsp;research&nbsp;scholars, academicians,&nbsp;professionals and students engaged in their respective field. The journal also provides an international forum to disseminate their knowledge.</p> <p>Our mission is to advance research by working to develop and maintain competence, ethics and integrity and the highest professional standards in the specialty for the benefit of the public. The Faculty seeks, through its activities, to bring about an improvement in research of the public.</p> <p><strong>Important notice</strong></p> <p>Authors can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to editor@ijsrm.in&nbsp;</p> <p>All manuscripts are subject to rapid peer review. Those of high quality (not previously published and not under consideration for publication in another journal) will be published without delay. First-time users are required to register themselves as an author before making submissions by signing up the author registration form at journals website</p> <p>With the online journal management system that we are using, authors will be able to track manuscripts progress through the editorial process by logging in as author in authors Dashboard.</p> en-US editor@ijsrm.in (Mr. Mahendra Patidar) editor@ijsrm.in (International Journal of Scientific Research and Management) Sat, 03 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Approaches to Thoracic and Lumbar Spine: Our 10 Years Review https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2282 <p>Background: Lesions of the Thoracic and lumbar spine (TL) are numerous. These lesions affect one or more columns (anterior, middle and posterior) of the spine and compress the spinal cords either from anterior and posterior, giving rise to the features of radiculo-myelopathy. These lesions can be approached either from the anterior or posterior aspect of the spine. We present our last 10 years experience regarding the comparison between two approaches. Methods: Retrospective analysis of records of all patients with thoracic and lumbar lesion treated in our hospital between January 2005 and June 2014 was performed. Over the last 10 years, we came across 186 patients of thoracic and lumbar lesion lesion who were operated either by anterior or posterior approach and were the focus of this study. Follow up ranged from 6 months to 7 years. Results: All the patients presented with neurological deficits. They were evaluated with investigation protocol of our hospital. Anterior approach was done in 38 cases (n = 38) and posterior approach was done in 148 cases (n = 148). We compared between the two groups in terms of perioperative complications, recovery, persisting symptoms and mortality. Conclusion: Complete recovery is better in the posterior approach (74.3%) v/s 52.6%) and morality is more in the anterior approach (7.9% v/s 1.3%). Keywords: Columns, radiculo-myelopathy, thoracic, lumbar</p> Parthasarahi Datta Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Scientific Research and Management http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2282 Sat, 17 Aug 2019 16:52:03 +0000 Approximation Models For Water Wave Equations https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2299 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> In this work we are interested in developing approximate models for water waves equation. We present the derivation of the new equations uses approximation of the phase velocity that arises in the linear water wave theory. We treat the (KdV) equation and similarly the C-H equation. Both of them describe unidirectional shallow water waves equation.</p> <p>At the same time, together with the (BBM) equation we propose, we provide the best approximation of the phase velocity for small wave numbers that can be obtained with second and third-order equations. We can extend the results of [3, 4].&nbsp; A comparison between the methods is mentioned in this article.</p> <p><strong>Key words:</strong> &nbsp;C-H equation, KdV equation, approximation, water wave equation, numerical methods.</p> <p>---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p> <p>[3]. D. J. Benney, “Long non-linear waves in fluid flows,” Journal of Mathematical&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Physics, vol. 45, pp. 52–63, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH</p> <p>&nbsp;[4]. Bezati, L., Hajrulla, S., &amp; Hoxha, F. (2018). Finite Volume Methods for Non-Linear&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Eqs. <em>International Journal of Scientific Research and Management</em>, <em>6</em>(02), M-&nbsp; 2018.&nbsp;</p> Leonard Bezati, Shkelqim Hajrulla, Kristofor Lapa Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Scientific Research and Management http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2299 Sat, 03 Aug 2019 04:30:44 +0000 The social demographic, social economic characteristics and health status of lactating mothers in Mwanamukia. A Case of Nairobi Metropolis https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2252 <p>Socio-economic status is a multi-factorial condition which is embedded in environmental, material and personal characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the social demographic and social economic characteristics of lactating mothers in Mwanamukia, Nairobi and their health condition. This cross sectional study was conducted on 260 purposively selected lactating women living in Mwanamukia, Nairobi Kenya. A structured, validated and pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain information on social, economic and demographic characteristics and the health staus. Data was entered into SPSS version 20 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine associations. Majority of the respondents were married (62.7%) or single (25.4%). 44.4% had achieved primary school education while 40% had attained Secondary ‘O’ level education. The maximum number of people living in households was 12 while the average number was 6. The study had respondents from different ethnic backgrounds. Majority Meru (25.5%) and Luhya (17.3%).&nbsp; The average monthly income was 27, 154.12 Kenyan shillings. Majority were business people (28.6%) and housewives (23.9%). 71.5% of household heads were men while 28.5% were women. Majority 73.5% suffered from fever, worm infestation 12.1%, Diarrhea 2.2%, diabetes 2.1% and HIV/AIDS 2.1More than half of the respondents interviewed were literate, married and lived in households headed by men.&nbsp; A quarter of them were business people, single and had Meru ethnicity. The highest number of people fell in the 36-40 years age category. More than half of the respondents had a given form of health condition.</p> Dr. Evayline Muthoni Nkirigacha Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Scientific Research and Management http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2252 Sat, 17 Aug 2019 17:28:35 +0000 Breastfeeding Knowledge, Altitude and Practices of Lactating Mothers in Mwanakia-A Case of Nairobi Metropolis https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2253 <p>The objective of the study to examine the breastfeeding knowledge, altitude and practices of lactating mothers 0-6 postpartum. This cross sectional study was conducted on 260 lactating women living in Mwanamukia, Nairobi Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used on social, socio-economic characteristics. SPSS version 20 and analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient determined associations. More than half of the respondents were literate, married and lived in male headed households. Others business people, single and Meru ethnicity. Majority 36-40 years age category. Majority (61.6%) participated in urban agriculture.&nbsp; 57.3% of the respondents owned land.&nbsp; 88.5% had heard about exclusive breastfeeding, 96.2% breastfed exclusively for 4 months, 57.7 knew infant should be breastfed immediately after birth, 26.5% breastfeed after2-24 hours of delivery.67.3% frequent suckling does not increase milk production. 46.9% agreed an infant first food breastmilk, 26.5% cow’s milk and 23.8% porridge. 94.2% altitude exclusively breastfeed 6 months, 46.1% believed feed infant breast milk while 30.4% cow’s milk, 23.4% porridge. 48.1% breast milk sufficient, 82.7%&nbsp; colostrum&nbsp; be fed to infant, 17.3% colostrum.81.2% felt good giving infant something to eat before 6 months, 18.8%&nbsp; afraid&nbsp; child well cry. 52.7% felt exclusively breastfed not healthier than exclusively breastfed.94.1% breastfed last child. 50% breastfed immediately, 29.2% gave something after one month, 48.1% gave something after 2 months. 52.3% breastfed on demand, 34.2% when child cried. Illiterate Mothers had inappropriate feeding practices (OR1.578, CI 1.762-2.292). The study concludes that knowledge and practice did not have any relationship, altitude influenced feeding habits.&nbsp;</p> Dr. Evayline Muthoni Nkirigacha Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Scientific Research and Management http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2253 Sat, 17 Aug 2019 17:57:36 +0000 Settlement of Land Disputes with The Title of Property Right Post Judges Decision (The Study of Land Disputes Bambu Runcing) https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2245 <p>This study aims to analyze state land dispute resolutions that are certified after the Judge's Decision (The Study of Land Disputes Bambu Runcing), Execution Process Implementation completion of post-Decision eta settlement: Submitting application for the execution of number: R/22/IX/2014/Bidkum on 23 sept 2014; Letter of request for rescheduling Execution No. R/30/XI/2014/Bidkum dated 27 November 2014; Minutes of Execution of Mataram District Court No:31/Pdt.G/2011/PN.MTR on Dec. 18. 2014; Calling to the dormitory dwellers in dispute to discuss the land emptying that has permanent legal force in the building of Sasanan Dharma Regional Police of NTB; Conducted the NTB Regional Police Chief Meeting with Members of the Indonesian National Police and Civil Servants who occupied the Bamboo Runcing Dormitory, 25 November 2014 attended by key officials, police chiefs, Mataram District court clerks, Mataram officials, Telkom Mataram officials, who were located Rupat Ops NTB Regional Police Chief; Giving compassion (to residents of full-fledged Indonesian police dormitories in disputes about “sharp bamboo land”; held by the Regional Police of West Nusa Tenggara: No. 3329 K/PDT/2012; No. 31/PDT.G/2011/PN.MTR; No. 48/PDT/2012/PT.MTR.</p> Tuti Handayani, Zainal Asikin, Widodo Dwi Putro Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Scientific Research and Management http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2245 Mon, 05 Aug 2019 06:05:11 +0000 Evaluation of Adoption of Interlocking Soil Technology in Development of Adequate and Sustainable Housing Projects in Nandi County, Kenya. https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2295 <p>Project success incorporates both project management success and product success. The basic criteria for evaluating project success are scope, time, cost, and client satisfaction with the final product or service.&nbsp; The use of interlocking stabilized soil block technology in housing projects has been promoted in Kenya as a means to address poverty, sustainable housing and housing affordability challenges facing many Kenyans. The programme was conceptualized, planned and implemented across the country. The uptake of the technology has however been slow. This study sought to evaluate the adoption of the interlocking soil technology in development of adequate and sustainable housing projects in Nandi County. The variables analyzed for this study were; understanding of the processes of production, community participation, benefits of the technology and the challenges of cost and information dissemination. The study was guided by the Innovation Diffusion and Systems theories. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. 155 households were sampled out of the 81,672 households in the target population. Quantitative data was collected using questionnaires. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study established that the interlocking technology is not widely practiced. There is an average understanding of the processes of production, community participation is not widely embraced, information dissemination is not effective and efficient and the costs were not affordable. The study recommends that action should be taken to promote better understanding of the processes of production, enhance community participation and addressing the challenges of cost and information dissemination.</p> Chang’ach Euginia, Prof. Peter Omboto, Prof. Leonard Mulongo Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Scientific Research and Management http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijsrm.in/index.php/ijsrm/article/view/2295 Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000